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How We’re Persuaded PowerPoint Presentation
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How We’re Persuaded

How We’re Persuaded

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How We’re Persuaded

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  1. How We’re Persuaded The name used by Aristotle for what we now refer to ascredibility. ETHOS = The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker; two major elements are evidence and reasoning. LOGOS = The name used by Aristotle for what we now refer to as emotional appeal. PATHOS =

  2. CREDIBILITY (ETHOS) The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. Factors in Credibility • Competence • How an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject. • Character • How an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.

  3. Types of Credibility • Initial • The credibility of a speaker before she or hestarts to speak. • Derived • The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech. • Terminal • The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.

  4. Sooooo…………. How Do I Enhance My Credibility? • Explain your competence • Establish common ground with your audience • Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction

  5. LOGICAL APPEALS (LOGOS) Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence. Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.

  6. Evaluating Evidence The Four Tests RELIABLE Objective . . . Competent to judge or comment RECENT Up-to-date . . . Current COMPLETE Comprehensive view, by virtue of the number of sources consulted ACCURATE Redundant . . . Verifiable . . . Can be found in a variety of sources

  7. Four Types of Reasoning • FROM SPECIFIC INSTANCE (INDUCTIVE)(hint: starts with individual instance) • Reasoning that moves from specific facts to a general conclusion. • My cat is a good hunter. My friend’s cat Is a good hunter. • Therefore, all cats are good hunters. • FROM PRINCIPLE (DEDUCTIVE) Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion. • All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

  8. Four Types of Reasoning • FROM CAUSE TO EFFECT (CAUSAL)Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects. • A storm hit just before my dog started to howl. Therefore, the storm caused my dog to howl. • BY ANALOGY (ANALOGICAL) Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second. • If you like spicy Mexican food, you’ll love spicy Chinese Szechuan food .

  9. Reasoning Guidelines INDUCTIVE REASONING • Avoid hasty generalizations • If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument • Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony DEDUCTIVE REASONING • Make sure listeners will accept your general principle • Provide evidence to support your minor premise CAUSAL REASONING • Avoid the fallacy of false cause • Do not assume that events have only a single cause ANALOGICAL REASONING • make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike

  10. ERRORS in REASONING (FALLACIES) • HASTY GENERALIZATION • Jumping to conclusions on insufficient evidence • Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt. • POST HOC (Ergo, Propter Hoc)…AKA FALSE CAUSE • If one event happens after another, the 2nd event was caused by the 1st • Susan got a headache right after she ate the shrimp salad; therefore, it stands to reason the shrimp was bad. • INVALID CAUSE  • When the two cases being compared are not really alike. Of course Ming-Lao can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.

  11. SLIPPERY SLOPE • A presumption that once something begins, nothing can be done to stop it • Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression. • RED HERRING Introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year? • AD HOMINEM • Attacking the person, not the argument/issue • The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but don’t forget that he used to be a hippie.

  12. EITHER-OR THINKING Forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor • CONFUSING FACT AND OPINION Because I (or someone else) believe it, it must be true Obviously, most if not all male ballet dancers are homosexuals. • BANDWAGON EFFECT • Assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. • The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.

  13. EMOTIONAL APPEALS (PATHOS) Appeals that are intended to make listeners feel emotional about the issue: sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, etc.

  14. How to Use Emotional Appeals • Use emotional language • Develop vivid examples • Speak with sincerity and conviction Using Emotional Appeals Ethically • Make sure the emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic • Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning