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Vital Statistics

Vital Statistics. an invaluable resource for health, demographic & population geography research Paul Norman. Vital Statistics. What are Vital Statistics? Vital Statistics (VS) are data on births, deaths, marriage & divorce

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Vital Statistics

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  1. Vital Statistics an invaluable resource for health, demographic & population geography research Paul Norman

  2. Vital Statistics What are Vital Statistics? Vital Statistics (VS) are data on births, deaths, marriage & divorce Focus here on births & deaths data for England & Wales, 1980s onwards What are the VS used for? Calculating demographic rates as measures of fertility and mortality Input to population estimation methods & forecasting models to provide population age-sex counts

  3. Vital Statistics Registration Legal requirement (since 1838) in the UK to register births with 42 days and deaths within 5 days Births & deaths data collected by local authorities Data passed to ONS (England & Wales), aggregated to various geographies & disseminated as tables for each calendar year Mortality analysis: London, Bills of Mortality 1593; RG Decennial Supplements since 1851

  4. Detailed demographic data Coarse geographic scale Detailed geographic scale Banded demographic detail Vital Statistics Data type Aggregate, tabular data population not sample Tables available at various geographical scales with different demographic detail births by sex deaths by sex, age and mortality cause

  5. Nation Region County District Ward Nation Region (District) Health Authority Vital Statistics Geographies (nested hierarchies) Administrative Health Frequency: Annual Time coverage: Calendar year

  6. Event (VS for calendar year) (mid year) Population at risk Using Vital Statistics (1) Demographic rates (by area and time point) Births data Crude birth rates General fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates Total fertility rates Derived from ASFRs Deaths data Crude death rates Age-specific mortality rates Standardised mortality ratios Observed events / Expected events Life Tables

  7. Using Vital Statistics (2) P(t+n) = P(t) + B – D ± Net migration Natural change Population estimates (for an area) Demographic components of change … The VS provide the births and deaths components. These update a base population P(t), e.g. the previous Census Population forecasts Past & recent VS evidence informs rates used in projections

  8. Vital Statistics VS Tables VS1: Summary statistics VS2: Births VS3: Deaths VS4: Births & deaths VS5: Infant & perinatal mortality Tables vary by Counts of events or pre-calculated rates Geographic detail Demographic & event detail Tables overlap to some extent

  9. Vital Statistics VS1: Summary statistics Geography: nation, region, local authority Counts of births within/outside marriage place of confinement stillbirths & infant deaths Precalculated rates birth rates (various) death rates (various)

  10. Vital Statistics VS2: Births Geography: nation, region, local authority Sub tables focusing on mothers, maternities & birth weight Counts Enables investigation of age-specific & total fertility rates place of confinement & parity live & still births by birth weight

  11. Vital Statistics VS3: Deaths Geography: nation, region, local authority Mortality by cause Counts Enables investigation of age-specific mortality rates by detailed cause of death detailed age & sex information life expectancy district level population change

  12. Vital Statistics VS4D: Deaths Geography: ward Mortality by broad cause Counts Enables investigation of mortality events (input to SMRs) by sex & all cancers (& e.g. breast & prostate) diabetes, circulatory & respiratory systems land transport accidents

  13. Vital Statistics VS4: Births & deaths Geography: ward Births & deaths Counts Enables investigation of local births local death rates, by sex & broad age all cause indirect SMRs local population change

  14. Vital Statistics VS5: Infant & perinatal mortality Geography: nation, region, local authority Live & still births, birth weight, early deaths Counts, some rates Enables investigation of birth & stillbirth rates & by weight infant mortality

  15. Vital Statistics VS data warnings (most relevant to time-series analysis) Geography: VS released for the geography in existence at the calendar year end systems of administrative & health geographies change over time boundaries liable to change some misallocation to areas due to postcode linkage error Age detail may not be consistent from one year to the next (or not compatible with denominators) 0-4 or 0,1-4 splits in teenage years 85+ or 90+

  16. Vital Statistics VS data warnings Not all VS tables 1 to 5 are available across time Post-2001 demographic & mortality detail much reduced (under review) Cause of death detail changes with International Classification of Diseases versions (now ICD10) Precalculated rates unreliable as denominators change when mid-year estimates revised

  17. Vital Statistics VS data availability High quality data source (legal requirement) Underused VS tables previously available in wide variety of inaccessible file formats. Much data cleaning achieved ESDS government provide UK academic support & link to downloadable data http://www.esds.ac.uk/government/vitals/ Vital Registration http://www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/ ONS, GRO(S) & NISRA http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nscl.asp?ID=7433 http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/ http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/

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