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DEMOGRAPHYY VITAL STATISTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY PowerPoint Presentation
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DEMOGRAPHYY VITAL STATISTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY

DEMOGRAPHYY VITAL STATISTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY

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DEMOGRAPHYY VITAL STATISTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY

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  1. DEMOGRAPHYY VITAL STATISTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY

  2. Essential Questions • What is it? • Why is it important to public health practice? • What essential information does it supply -- i.e., how does it function relative to public health practice? • Who uses this information and for what purposes? • What problems of information reliability and validity are encountered?

  3. PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS IN PUBLIC HEASLTH • Population estimation and forecasting • Surveys of population characteristics • Analysis of health trends • Epidemiological research • Program evaluation • Program planning • Budget preparation and justification • Operational and administrative decision-making • Health education

  4. DEMOGRAPHY • Demography is one branch of the interdisciplinary study of human populations • Demography deals with the social characteristics of populations and their development through time • Demographic data may include the following: • Analysis of a population on the basis of age,natality, race or ethnicity, marital status, occupation, level of education, income and poverty, housing, urban or rural residence, population density . . . Etc. • Changes in population as a result of births, marriages and deaths

  5. DEMOGRAPHY • Statistics on migration and their effects, and their relation to economic conditions • Statistics of crime, illegitimacy and suicide • Demographic information serves as the data base for many calculations of vital statistics -- i.e., relating the numbers of various kinds of vital events that occur over a time period to the size of the affected population

  6. Information Gleaned fromDemographic Studies • Size of population • Age distribution • Sex/Gender distribution • Income levels • Education levels • Occupation • Race/Ethnicity • Residence

  7. Who UsesDemographic Information? • Health departments (all levels0 • Housing offices • Businesses (especially employers considering location) • School systems (all types) • Transportation planners • Housing planners/developers • Hospitals (re. location of health facilities)

  8. DEMOGRAPHIC COMPARISONS --PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES Resident Pop. Allegheny Bucks Lackawanna 1980 1,450,195 479,211 227,908 1990 1,336,445 541,174 219,097 1995 (July) 1,309,821 573,901 215,689 % Change (1980-95) -9.7 19.8 -5.4

  9. DEMOGRAPHIC COMPARISONS --PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES Median Fam. Inc. Allegheny Bucks Lackawanna 1980 $21,643 $24,402 $17,325 1990 $35,338 $48,851 $31,474 % Change (1980-90) 64.1 100.2 81.7 % Age 65 & Older 18.1 11.9 20.0

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS • Several important demographic trends will continue to affect health care in the U.S. Five such trends are: • Slowing population growth • Increasing diversity of the population • Changes in family structure • Persistent inequalities in access to health services • Variability in health insurance coverage

  11. HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE • Percent of persons under age 65 without health insurance = 16.1% (1996) • Number of persons under age 65 without health insurance = 38.9 million (1996) • Percent of children under age 18 without health insurance = 13.5% • Business establishments with fewer than 50 employees offered health insurance to 42% of workers, compared to 94% of workers in business establishments with 50 or more employees

  12. DEMOGRAPHY OF AGING • Average age of the U.S. population rose from 23 years to 33 years between 1900-1990 • Average age of the U.S. population is expected to climb to 39 years by 2035 • Between 1990-2030, the oldest age group in the U.S. (persons age 85 and older) is projected to triple in size from 3 million to 9 million • When today’s college students are in their 70’s, they will represent over one-third of the U.S. population over 25 years of age

  13. DEMOGRAPHY OF ADOLESCENCE • Proportion of adolescents in most Western nations, including the U.S., is on the decline relative to the general population • In the United States: • In 1980, 10-19 year olds made up 17% of the population • In 1990, 10-19 year olds made up 14% of the populatin • There has been a recent increase in numbers of children less than 5 years of age, resulting from the 1980s “baby boomlet.” As a result, the percentage of younger adolescents rose again during the 1990s

  14. DEMOGRAPHY OF ADOLESCENCE • Although whites comprise the largest proportion of adolescents in the U.S., their overall percentage fell relative to Hispanic, African-American and Native American adolescents since 1980 • Numbers of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents in the U.S. more than doubled between 1980-1990 • Recent high school dropout rates was 12.6% for all adolescents, 121.4% for whites, 13.8% for African-Americans, and 33% for Hispanics