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  1. Water Reuse for Augmentation of Water Supply Joseph G. Jacangelo1,2 Tamar S. Levenberg1 James DeCarolis1 1MWH 2The Johns Hopkins University Your Drinking Water: Challenges and Solutions for the 21st Century April 20-21, 2009

  2. Presentation Overview • Overview and drivers for water reuse • Water quality and regulatory considerations for reuse • Contaminant exposure routes • Advanced treatment for selected constituents of concern • Summary: Future trends in water reuse

  3. What is Water Reuse? The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse Association, 2003

  4. What is Water Reuse? The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse Association, 2003

  5. Municipal and industrial wastewater effluent Brackish water Poor quality groundwater Agriculture return flows Stormwater Impaired Waters

  6. What is Water Reuse? The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse Association, 2003

  7. What is Water Reuse? The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse Association, 2003

  8. Types of Water Reuse • Non-Potable Reuse – Examples: irrigation and industrial reuse • Potable Reuse - includes drinking water • Direct potable reuse • Indirect potable reuse

  9. Agricultural irrigation Landscape irrigation Nonpotable urban uses Industrial uses Impoundments Environmental uses Groundwater recharge Indirect potable reuse Uses of Reclaimed Water

  10. Types of Indirect Potable Reuse • Unplanned – Withdrawal of water from water bodies that have received wastewater or other types of discharges • Mississippi, Ohio, S. Platte rivers • The “magic” of the river bed • Planned – Engineered systems to provide augmentation of water supply

  11. Global Drivers of Reuse • Rising Water Demands • Demographic, economic growth • Urban growth • Finite Water Resources • Nearby sources: Rare & vulnerable • Remote sources : Costly to develop • Regulatory & Political Pressure • Effluent disposal (zero discharge) • Environmental issues associated with impoundments (no dams)

  12. Freshwater Brackish and Seawater Conservation Groundwater Reclaimed water Total Water Portfolio

  13. Current Status of Water Reuse in the United States • Approximately 1,500 water reuse facilities in U.S. • Only 5-7% of wastewater is currently reused • “I believe the Last River for us to tap is Wastewater.” - John Keys, Commissioner USBR

  14. Water Reuse Breakdown California Florida Source: US EPA. Guidelines for water reuse

  15. OCWD Central/West Basin MWD San Jose LACSD San Diego County Irvine Ranch Dublin San Ramon EBMUD Orlando Scottsdale Phoenix San Antonio El Paso Tarrant Regional St. Petersburg Pinellas County King County (WA) Austin Santa Rosa UOSA (VA) SNWA/LVVWD Largest Water Reuse Programs in the United States

  16. Groundwater Recharge - Spreading

  17. Groundwater Recharge - Injection

  18. Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority, Virginia, Water Reclamation Plant – 20 years of operation

  19. More Stringent Regulations Less Stringent Regulations Regulations and Guidelines Vary Depending on Type of Reuse • Indirect Potable Reuse • Agricultural Reuse on Food Crops • Unrestricted Recreational Reuse • Unrestricted Urban Irrigation Reuse • Restricted Urban Irrigation Reuse • Restricted Recreational Reuse • Industrial Reuse • Environmental Reuse • Agricultural Reuse on Non-food Crops

  20. Reuse Applications and Number of States with Guidelines 2004 Guidelines for Water Reuse, EPA/625/R-04/108

  21. Title 22 Requirements for Non – Potable Reuse • Secondary treatment • Filtration turbidity of 2 NTU • 2.2 total coliforms/100 mL • CT = 450 mg/L-min

  22. Requirements for Indirect Potable Reuse • Secondary and advanced treatment • Drinking water regulations • Monitoring of other constituents of concern (TOC, nitrogen, phosphorus, EDCs/PPCPs • Environmental Buffer

  23. Water Quality

  24. Constituents of Concern in Water Reuse Water Supply Industrial Use Commercial Use Domestic Use Nutrients Microbes Organics Metals Salt To Wastewater Treatment

  25. Water Quality Issues That Effect End Use • Cooling Towers • Nutrients, TDS, suspended solids, chlorides, odor, hardness, bacteriological • Textile Mill • Color, inorganics, chlorine, odor • Cement Manufacturers • Suspended solids, inorganics • Wetland Enhancements • Nutrients

  26. Water Quality Issues That Effect End Use • Agricultural • TDS, boron, chloride, chlorine, suspended solids • Toilets and Urinal Flushing • Suspended solids, color, odor • Wetland Enhancements • Nutrients • Indirect Potable Reuse • DWR, EDCs/PPCPs, Others

  27. Exposure to Contaminants of Concern

  28. Selected Routes of Exposure to Reclaimed Water • Direct exposure • Contact from surfaces exposed to reclaimed water • Accidental ingestion • Consumption of fruits and vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water • Contact with aerosols from spray irrigation or cooling towers • Ingestion through indirect potable reuse • Indirect exposure • Impact environmental matrices and affect the transport of pollutants (irrigation of soils – overspray)

  29. Important Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Campylobacter Hepatitis A Giardia Escherichia coli Reovirus Cryptosporidum Salmonella Calicivirus Entameoba Yersinia Enterovirus Microsporidium Vibrio Coxsackievirus Legionella Adenovirus Aeromonas Echovirus Mycobacterium Poliovirus Shigella Pseudomonas

  30. Concentration Ranges of Selected Microorganisms Found in Raw Wastewater Adapted from NRC, 1998

  31. Multiple Barrier Approach to Risk Management • Source control • Appropriate treatment (multiple barriers) • Storage, transmission and distribution protection • Cross connection control / backflow prevention, pipe line separation • Protection of usage areas • Warning signs, buffer zones, cross connection control, end-user agreements, user notifications MONITORING TO ASSURE BARRIERS ARE WORKING

  32. Treatment for Contaminant Removal

  33. Water Reuse Treatment Trains Disinfection Pre-treatment Chemicals Sand filter Primary Activated sludge Clarifier Sedimentation MF/UF Disinfection Disinfection/ Oxidation Reverse Osmosis Raw Sewage Screening Disinfection MBR Disinfection/Oxidation Reverse Osmosis

  34. Membrane Modules

  35. Spiral Wound Membrane

  36. Calgon UV System UV Systems

  37. Treatment for Inorganics(Membrane Bioreactor and Reverse Osmosis)

  38. Sunrise Treatment Streams

  39. MBR RO

  40. Influent Wastewater Characterization

  41. Removal of Suspended Solids 1000.0 100.0 Influent MBR Permeate mg/L WQ Goal 10.0 1.0 5-Apr 20-Apr 5-May 20-May 4-Jun 19-Jun 4-Jul 19-Jul 3-Aug 18-Aug 2-Sep 17-Sep 2-Oct

  42. 100.0 10.0 mg/L 1.0 Influent MBR Permeate RO Permeate WQ Goal 0.1 5-Apr 20-Apr 5-May 20-May 4-Jun 19-Jun 4-Jul 19-Jul 3-Aug 18-Aug 2-Sep 17-Sep 2-Oct Removal of Total Nitrogen

  43. 10.00 1.00 mg/L 0.10 0.01 Influent MBR Permeate RO Permeate Reverse Alum Alum Osmosis in in WQ Goal Treatment MBR MBR 0.00 5-Apr 17-Apr 29-Apr 11-May 23-May 4-Jun 16-Jun 28-Jun 10-Jul 22-Jul 3-Aug 15-Aug 27-Aug 8-Sep 20-Sep 2-Oct 14-Oct Removal of Phosphates

  44. Treatment for Microorganisms

  45. 1E+09 1E+08 1E+07 1E+06 1E+05 Concentration, MPN/100mL 1E+04 MBR Permeate Fecal Coliforms 1E+03 Primary Effluent Fecal Coliforms 1E+02 1E+01 1E+00 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Time of Operation. hours 1.00E+09 1.00E+08 Primary Effluent Total Coliphage 1.00E+07 MBR Permeate Total Coliphage 1.00E+06 1.00E+05 Concentration, PFU/100 mL 1.00E+04 1.00E+03 1.00E+02 1.00E+01 1.00E+00 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Time of Operation, hours Fecal Coliform Bacteria and Coliphage in MBR Effluent

  46. Disinfectants Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Overall Rating Free chlorine Excellent Excellent Fair/Poor Good Fair Poor Very Poor Poor Chloramines Chlorine dioxide Good/Excellent Good/Excellent Fair Good Ozone Excellent Excellent Good Good/Excellent Ultraviolet irradiation Excellent Fair/Good Excellent Good/Excellent Filtration Processes Good Fair Good Good Granular Media Filtration Excellent Good/Excellent Excellent Excellent Membrane Bioreactor Comparison of Microbial Inactivation or Removal Efficacy by Selected Disinfectants and Filtration Processes Adapted from Trussell, 1993

  47. Treatment for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) and Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)(Reverse Osmosis and UV Advanced Oxidation)

  48. Endocrine Disrupting Compounds • Endocrine Disrupting Compounds are contaminants of emerging concern • Removal by conventional wastewater processes are often at low levels • Advanced treatment often required

  49. Examples of EDC/PPCPs Steroids