Research Questions • What is the scope of forced • labor in the United States? • What do victims of forced • labor experience? • What is needed to eradicate • forced labor?
Study Methodology International definition of forced labor: “All work or service which is exacted from any person under menace of any penalty” (ILO Convention No. 29) Data Sources • Survey of newspaper reports • Survey of service providers • Case studies • Key informant interviews
How many victims? • 10,000 or more victims of forced • labor in U.S. at any given time • Average length of servitude • is 2.5 years • Compare: 16,000 homicides in • U.S. each year
California cities in which forced labor incidences were reported Anaheim Artesia Berkeley Daly City El Monte Fresno Long Beach Los Angeles Palo Alto San Diego San Francisco San Jose West Hollywood
Country of origin of victims California United States
What are victims forced to do? * Of the 131 cases of forced labor found in the survey of press reports, 45 (36.3 percent) noted that children were involved. Approximately 1,200 child victims (those under the age of 18) were exploited in these cases.
Why don’t victims walk away? • Physical violence and threats • Fear of U.S. authorities • Dependency • Retaliation against family back home • Fear of a strange land • Guards
Why are certain sectors vulnerable to forced labor? • Demand • Lack of legal protections • Lack of monitoring and • enforcement
How can we reduce vulnerability to forced labor? • Education of targeted communities • Monitoring and enforcement • Training law enforcement and • service providers
How can we strengthen protections for victims? • Improve victim and witness protection in home countries • Increase protection and support for victims in U.S. • Develop protections for returnees