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Galaxies in clusters and their progenitors

Galaxies in clusters and their progenitors

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Galaxies in clusters and their progenitors

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  1. Galaxies in clusters and their progenitors Pieter van Dokkum (Yale)

  2. General properties of cluster galaxies • Morphology-density relation • In core approx. 80% are E and S0 galaxies (Dressler 1980)

  3. General properties of cluster galaxies • Cluster galaxies follow tight scaling relations: • Color-magnitude relation • Fundamental Plane (Djorgovski & Davis 1987, Dressler et al 1987) • relation (Faber 1973) (e.g., Bower, Lucey, Ellis 1992) Terlevich, Caldwell, Bower 2001

  4. Motivation for studying cluster galaxies • Early-type galaxies are massive and old: Constrain galaxy formation theories or ?

  5. Motivation for studying cluster galaxies • Descendants Ly-break galaxies? • Ly-break galaxies already clustered (Giavalisco et al 1998) • In hierarchical models end up in groups and clusters Ly-break descendants Baugh et al. 1998

  6. Observational programs • Study the evolution of galaxies in the densest environments • Determine when/how galaxies and LSS formed • Test predictions from CDM models • Such programs require the resolution of HST and collecting area of large ground-based telescopes Meza et al. 2003

  7. Observational programs • Several 100 clusters known at 0.2<z<1.0 (best selected by SZ-effect, lensing, or X-rays) Stanford et al. 2001

  8. Observational programs • Several 100 clusters known at 0.2<z<1.5 (best selected by SZ-effect, lensing, or X-rays) (Lensing NOT effective method beyond z~0.7)

  9. Observational programs • Several 100 clusters known at 0.2<z<1.0 (best selected by SZ-effect, lensing, or X-rays) • Many (50+) observed with HST (eg ACS GTO team) Abell 2218 (z=0.18; Ellis et al 04) RX0848 (z=1.27; van D & Stanford 03)

  10. Observational programs • Several 100 clusters known at 0.2<z<1.0 (best selected by SZ-effect, lensing, or X-rays) • Many (50+) observed with HST (eg ACS GTO team) • … but only handful outside the inner Mpc CL1358+62 MS2053-04 MS1054-03 (z=0.33) (z=0.58) (z=0.83)

  11. What have we learned ? • Early-type galaxies appear to evolve slowly and gradually -> stars formed at high redshift Fundamental Plane: van Dokkum/Franx/Kelson/Illingworth/ Stanford/vdMarel 96-04 Studies of colors, line strengths, etc: Ellis et al. 1997, Bernardi et al 98, Stanford et al 95/98, vD et al 98,00, Treu et al 99,02, Poggianti et al 03, Blakeslee et al 03, Kodama et al 04 z=10 z=3 z=1.5

  12. What have we learned ? RDCS1252 (z=1.24; Blakeslee et al 03; Lidman et al 03)

  13. What have we learned ? • At the same time, morphological mix evolves Andreon et al. 1997 Fabricant et al 98 Dressler et al. 1997 van D et al 00,01 Lubin et al. 1998 Smith et al 04

  14. What have we learned ? • At the same time, morphological mix evolves • This may affect age estimates of early-type galaxies (“progenitor bias”; vDF01) • Current idea: evolution driven by infall from the field Kodama et al 01 (z=0.41; Subaru)

  15. Field spirals and groups fall in

  16. Kenney - Interaction hot gas: “ram pressure stripping” spiral -> S0 galaxy (Gunn & Gott 1972) - Encounters: “galaxy harassment” spiral -> early-type (Moore et al 98) MORPHS

  17. - Mergers may take place in infalling groups groups -> ellipticals (van Dokkum et al 1999)

  18. 30 arcmin Cluster evolution at 0.5<z<1.5 • Need to sample to the virial radius: R~10’ • Very inefficient with HST (even with ACS/WF3) CL0024 at z=0.39 Treu et al. 2003

  19. Surveying clusters at 0.5<z<1.5 • Need to sample to the virial radius: R~10’ • Very inefficient with HST (even with ACS/WF3) • Requirements: • Field of 20-30 arcmin • Near-IR capability to study clusters beyond z=1 • Good match to SNAPlike mission (expect 10-20 clusters in 15 sq degrees of deep survey areas!)

  20. Progenitors at z>2 • Overdensities of young objects found out to z~5 Venemans et al 02; also: Francis et al 97, Steidel et al 00, …

  21. Progenitors at z>2 • Overdensities of young objects found out to z~4 • However, rest-UV selection may give biased view Optical: Palomar digital sky survey UV: GALEX

  22. Typical Lyman-break galaxy and typical nearby spiral • L* Sb/c galaxy at z=3: K  23, R  28 • Would not be selected by any current method!

  23. Selecting “mature” galaxies at z>2 • Use redshifted Balmer- or 4000Å-break • Adopted criterion: J – K > 2.3 (restframe U – V > 0)

  24. 10 arcmin FIRES Deep (Ivo Labbe) FIRES Wide (Natascha Forster Schreiber) MUSYC Deep (Ryan Quadri)

  25. Red galaxies at z>2 • Substantial surface density: ~ 0.6/arcmin to K=21 (from FIRES/MUSYC) ~ 2/arcmin to K=22 (from FIRES) ~ 3/arcmin to K=23 (from FIRES) 2 2 2 2

  26. Red galaxies at z>2 • Substantial surface density: ~ 0.6/arcmin to K=21 (from FIRES/MUSYC) ~ 2/arcmin to K=22 (from FIRES) ~ 3/arcmin to K=23 (from FIRES) • SEDs very different from Lyman breaks 2 2 2

  27. Förster Schreiber et al., ApJ, submitted

  28. Red galaxies at z>2 • Substantial surface density: ~ 0.8/arcmin to K=21 (from both fields) ~ 2/arcmin to K=22 (from HDF-S) ~ 3/arcmin to K=23 (from HDF-S) • SEDs very different from Lyman breaks • Rest-frame optical spectroscopy + SED fits: massive, dusty, star-forming galaxies 2 2 2 vD et al, ApJ, in press; Foerster Schreiber et al, ApJ, subm.

  29. Red galaxy at z=2.43 Keck/NIRSPEC, 1½ hrs vD et al, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/0404471)

  30. Best constrained parameter: stellar (and dyn) mass vD et al, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/0404471)

  31. Correlations with linewidth • Combining z=3 LBGs and z=2.6 DRGs: linewidth correlates with color and stellar mass astro-ph/0404471

  32. Evolution of massive galaxies astro-ph/0404471

  33. Evolution of massive galaxies Early-type ? ERO DRG ? Spiral LBG

  34. Evolution of massive galaxies Early-type ERO DRG Spiral LBG

  35. Mapping matter at z=2-3 • Galaxies highly clustered -> need large fields • Map stellar mass using near-IR selected galaxies • Map halo mass using Tully-Fisher type correlations and clustering

  36. HDF-South 10’x10’ RJK composite K<21.5, J-K>2.3 MUSYC project (Ryan Quadri)

  37. 30’x30’ field (1/60 of SNAP deep survey!)

  38. Mapping matter at z=2-3 • Galaxies highly clustered -> need large fields • Map stellar mass using near-IR selected galaxies • Map halo mass using Tully-Fisher type correlations and clustering • Morphologies • Fully formed galaxies or mergers? • Sizes: bulges or ellipticals? • Star formation in disks or clumps? • Density? Central point sources?

  39. Red galaxy in Ultra Deep Field: ACS B,V,I,z + NICMOS J,H

  40. B V I z J H In near-IR, JDEM could be >1000 x more efficient than HST!

  41. Mapping matter at z=2-3 • Galaxies highly clustered -> need large fields • Map stellar mass using near-IR selected galaxies • Map halo mass using Tully-Fisher type correlations and clustering • Morphologies • Sizes / densities • Star formation in disks or clumps? • How far to the red ? • Current selection: J–K -> z=2-4 • In practice: break almost always between J and H

  42. Quadri et al., in prep

  43. Mapping matter at z=2-3 • Galaxies highly clustered -> need large fields • Map stellar mass using near-IR selected galaxies • Map halo mass using Tully-Fisher type correlations and clustering • Morphologies • Sizes / densities • Star formation in disks or clumps? • How far to the red ? • Current selection: J–K -> z=2-4 • In practice: break almost always between J and H • Cutoff at 1.7 micron OK for z=2-3 (need filter!)

  44. There are exceptions: • Overlap with ground-based K or IRAC needed to select red z>3 galaxies, and to fit the SEDs K = 20.1 phot z = 3.7

  45. Mapping matter at z=2-3 • Galaxies highly clustered -> need large fields • Map stellar mass using near-IR selected galaxies • Map halo mass using Tully-Fisher type correlations and clustering • Morphologies • Sizes / densities • Star formation in disks or clumps? • How far to the red ? • Current selection: J–K -> z=2-4 • In practice: break almost always between J and H • Cutoff at 1.7 micron OK for z=2-3 (need filter!)

  46. Blue: data for K-bright LBGs (Shapley et al; astro-ph/0405187)

  47. Comparison to other star forming galaxies