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Open systems

Open systems

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Open systems

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  1. Open systems

  2. Open System: • Open system: A system that implements sufficient open specifications or standards forinterfaces, services, and supporting formats to facilitate properly engineered application software • — To be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems from one ormore vendors • — To interoperate with other applications on local or remote systems • — To interact with people in a style that facilitates user portability (ISO/IEC 14252: 1995)

  3. Open System: • compatible with other programsand users • (can be constructed from existing modules) • runs on different platforms • (software and hardware platform)

  4. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  5. Initially: Hardware and software platforms were incompatible UP UP UP Applications Applications Applications Software Platform Software Platform Software Platform Software Platform Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms

  6. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  7. Portability at the source code Applications Applications Applications Software Platform Software Platform Software Platform Software Platform Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms

  8. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  9. Portability at the level of executable programs within a single computer family Applications Applications Applications Applications Applications Software Platform Software Platform Software Platform Platform IBM\360 Platform IBM\360 Platform IBM\360

  10. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  11. Portability at the level of executable programs within a single computer family Applications Applications Applications Applications Applications Software Platform VAX Software Platform VAX Software Platform VAX with support for virtual memory with support for virtual memory with support for virtual memory Platform VAX Platform VAX Platform VAX

  12. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  13. Thus portability was achieved at a hardware platform Applications Applications Applications OS UNIX (POSIX) OS UNIX (POSIX) OS UNIX (POSIX) Software Platform OS kernel OS kernel OS kernel Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms Hardware Platforms

  14. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  15. Interoperability of different programs Applications Applications Applications OS kernel OS kernel OS kernel

  16. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)

  17. Formation of the concept of open systems Interface standards joint systems, applications and users OSE Standards of operating systems and databases EDI, ODA, ODIF, SWIFT, … OS UNIX, POSIX, language C => API TCP/IPforUNIX The virtual address space OS VAX VMS RM OSI + standards for interfaces and protocols The family of computers IBM/360 TCP / IPfor ARPA network COBOL, FORTRAN SNA (IBM), DECnet (Digital)