Global Product Management and Branding Pesewa Presentations
Defining a Product A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption; it includes physical objects, services, personalities, places, organisations and ideas. Philip Kotler
Global Product Development • The heart of the global marketing process that focuses on building adaptability into products to achieve worldwide appeal. • The product development process • The main goal is to build adaptability into products and product lines for worldwide appeal. • Step 1: Idea generation • Step 2: Screening • Step 3: Product/process development • Step 4: Scale up • Step 5: Commercialization
FACTORS ENCOURAGING STANDARDIZATION Economies of scale in production Economies in product R&D Economies in marketing “Shrinking” of the world marketplace/economic integration Global competitions Standardisation
Global Program Management Initiator Affected Units(s) Managing Unit Viable Concept Yes No Initiator Becomes Managing Unit Does Initiator Have Resources? New Management Unit Assigned Unique Requirements to be Incorporated in Product Goals and Specifications Technical Development and Design Review of Design Activities to Plan, Develop, Manufacture, Introduce, and Support Product Activities to Plan, Develop, Manufacture, Introduce, and Support Product Nonoccurrence with Managing Unit Integration and Coordination of All Multinational Program Activities Guidelines for Program Execution
The Location of R&D Activities • Past tendency was to keep activities centrally located with parent corporation headquarters. • Using foreign-based resources improves ability to compete successfully internationally. • Outsourcing shortens product development cycle time. • Determined by the existence of specific skills.
Reasons for R&D Investments Abroad • To aid technology transfer from parent to subsidiary. • To develop new and improved products specifically for foreign markets. • To develop new products and processes for application in world markets of the firm. • To generate new technology.
Global Product Development Organization • Product development team that is functionally and internationally representative. • Focus on customer input to identify universal and market-unique product features. • R&D consortia allows companies to cooperate in developing new products and technologies.
The Testing of New Product Concepts • Testing for performance and customer acceptance is the final stage of product development. • Testing ranges from reliability tests to mini-launches. • Reasons that new international products fail: • Relying on instinct or hunch rather than testing and research. • Lack of product distinctiveness. • Unexpected technical problems. • Mismatch between functions.
International Product Testing Techniques • Limited product launch in one country market. • Laboratory test markets to capture consumer reactions in a controlled environment. • Microtest marketing uses a permanent panel of consumers and assesses their willingness to buy after exposure to media and purchase incentives. • Forced distribution tests rely on the continuous report of consumer reactions to new products already in the market.
The Global Product Launch • Introducing the product into countries in three or more regions within a narrow timeframe. • Successful launches require: • Involvement of country managers • Pre-launch attention to localization and translation requirements • Increased education and support of the sales channel • Benefits of a global launch • Showcases the product • Removes old models at once • Captures new product’s higher margins
Product and Brand Portfolio Management • The marketer must have a balance of new, growing, and mature products capable of creating sustainable competitive advantage in the firm’s efforts to expand geographically or add to existing market operations. • Analyzing the product portfolio • Market growth rates • Market share positions
Example of a Product-Market Portfolio 40 40 B B B S J S F F GB GB D D 10 10 Market Growth C US US C 0 0 10 1 0 10 1 0 Relative Market Share Relative Market Share Company A Company B (B=Brazil, C=Canada, D=Germany, F=France, GB=Great Britain, J=Japan, S=Spain, US=United States) SOURCE: Adapted from Jean-Claude Larreche, “The International Product-Market Portfolio,” in 1978 AMA Educators’ Proceedings (Chicago:American Marketing Association, 1978), 276
Market-Product-Business Portfolio Example Canned Tea-US Canned Tea-Asia High Ice Cream-US Canned Tea-Europe Market Attractiveness Frozen Main Dishes-Europe Ice Cream-Asia Ice Cream-Europe Frozen Vegetables-Europe Frozen Vegetables-US Low Low Competitive Strength High ——— Market and Distribution Interconnectedness………. Technology and Production Interconnectedness SOURCE: Adapted from Susan P. Douglas and Samuel Craig, “Global Portfolio Planning and Market Interconnectedness,” Journal of International Marketing 4 (no.I, 1996):93-110.
ADVANTAGES A global view of competitive structures. Global strategy based on allocation of scarce resources. Marketing objectives based on product lines in markets served . A convenient visual communication goal. DISADVANTAGES Foreign competition does not follow the same rules as domestic competition. Relationships between market share and profitability may vary. Government regulations. Local content laws. Different production sites impact perceptions of risk and quality. Product Portfolio Approach
The Role of Brands A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol (such as a logo, trademark or package design) intended to identify the goods or services of either one seller or a group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors. A brand thus signals to the customer the source of the product, and protects both the customer and the producer from competitors who would attempt to provide products that appear to be identical.
The International Brand: Four Approaches • Translation. • Transliteration testing existing brand name for connotative meaning, e.g., “flic” pen. • Transparency, i.e., meaningless brand name to minimize complexities. • Transculture. Foreign language name forms a brand, e.g., vodka or perfume.
Managing the Brand Portfolio • A strong brand is a global marketing asset. • Co-branding • A strategic alliance where two or more brands are combined in an offer. • Brand strategy decisions • Use of the corporate name. • Family brands for a wide product line. • Individual brands for each item in the product line. • Private (store) branding • Umbrella branding with the intermediary’s name. • Separate brand names.
Nestle’s Branding Tree Examples 7,500 Local Brands Responsibility of local markets • Wonka • Chambinho • Bona • Fruitips 140 Regional Strategic Brands Responsibility of strategic business unit and regional management • Macintosh • Vittel • Stouffer’s • Herta • Alpo 45 Worldwide Strategic Brands Responsibility of general management at strategic business unit level • Mighty Dog • Smarties • After Eight • Coffee-Mate • Kit Kat • Cerelac • Baci 10 Worldwide Corporate Brands • Nestle • Carnation • Buitoni • Maggi • Perrier SOURCE: Adapted from Andrew J. Parsons,”Nestle: The Visions of Local Managers,”The McKinsey Quarterly, no 2, 1996, 5-29;see also http://www.nestle.com; http://brand/index.asp.
Private Brand Strategy SOURCES:Adapted from Sabine Bonnot, Emma Carr and Michael J. Reyner, “Fighting Brawn with Brain,” The McKinsy Quarterly 40 (no 2. 2000): 85-92; and Francois Glemet and Rafael Mira, “The Brand Leader’s Dilemma,” The Mckinsey Quarterly 33 (no 2. 1993):4.