October 1, 2012 Reflection and Inference Time while listening Renaissance Period Predictions Begin Renaissance Period
Renaissance Period • 1400-1600
Renaissance Background • Rebirth • Italy became the center for the arts after fall of Burgundy • Period of religious turmoil • Henry VIII was king • Age of exploration
Characteristics of Renaissance Music • Composers wrote music to enhance the meaning and emotion of the text • Word painting – musical representation of specific poetic images • Mainly polyphonic • A cappella – no accompaniment • City of Burgundy • Had the best music • Basse dance – dance where the feet were kept low to ground & made women look like they floated
Sacred Composers • Hired by the church • Not a lot of freedom-demanded specific styles of music • Wrote motets and massesboth are polyphonic nowMasses have fixed words (Kyrie elison, gloria, pie jesu)Motets are free words in Latin (usually a biblical passage)
Guillaume Dufay • 1398-1474 • Not born into high class • Wrote the motet based on a pre-existing plainchant • First composer to use a secular song as the melody in the catusfirmus of a mass
Dufay • Career in the church • 70 Secular pieces survived • Used imitation – hand the melody from one section to another • Isorhythmic structure – single rhythmic pattern that’s repeated • Cyclic Mass – mass using the same motive through every movement • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLwMEBlBBB4
Renaissance Sacred Music • Two main forms • Motet – polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass • Mass – polyphonic choral composition made up of five sections • All voices became equal and singable
Josquin des Prez • 1440-1521 • Considered to be a genius and greatest of his generation • 20 masses survived • Studied under Ockeghem • Developed the deploration
Josquin des Prez • Intentionally expressed emotion through music by creating different moods with music • Worked for secular rulers as well • Wrote “El Grillo” (the cricket) which was the nickname of one of his singers • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKJgwLPjmlw
Ave Maria by Josquin des Prez Ave Maria Gratia Plena Dominus tecum, Virgo serena. Hail Mary, full of grace the Lord is with thee, serene Virgin Notice: Each soprano phrase imitated in turn by alto, tenor, and bass. Duple Meter.
Ave, cuiuscomceptio Solemniplenagaudio, coelestiaterrestria nova repletlaetitia. Hail, whose conception Full of great jubilation, fills Heaven and Earth with new Joy. Notice: High duet imitated by three lower voices. All four voices. Increased rhythmic animation reflects “new joy.”
Ave, cuiusnativitas nostra fuitsolemnitas, utluciferluxoriens verumsolempraeveniens Hail, whose birth brought us joy, as Lucifer, the morning star went before the truth Notice: High duet imitated by low duet. Soprano phrase imitated by alto, tenor and bass.
Ave, piahumilitas, sine virofecunditas, cuiusannuntiatio nostra fuitsalvatio Hail, pious humility, fruitful without a man, whose Annunciation brought us salvation. Notice: High duet imitated by low duet. High duet. Low duet.
Ave, veravirginitas, immaculate castitas, cuiuspurificatio nostra fuitpurgatio. Hail, true virginity, immaculate chastity, whose purification brought our cleansing Notice: Triple Meter
Ave praeclara omnibus angelic is virtuibus cuiusassumptio nostra glorificatio. O mater Dei, memento mei. Amen. Hail, glorious one in all angelic virtues, whose Assumption was our glorification. O Mother of God, remember me. Amen Notice: Duple meter, high duets imitated by lower voices. Brief pause. Sustained chords
Reformation • Protestant reforming against the Roman Catholic Church • Headed by Martin Luther • Selling of Indulgences • Wanted more with music than R.C. church wanted
Reformation Cont. • Martin Luther • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTnrtOJLRFk • A Mighty Fortress is Our God • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6k8DFb8fWs
Counter Reformation • Council of Trent • Group of Cardinals • Refined the instruments being used in the church • Removed many of the motets and sequences • Wanted music to respect the integrity of the sacred text • Hired a specific composer to rewrite the music
Giovanni da Palestrina • 1525-1594 • 104 masses • 450 other sacred works
Pope Marcellus Mass • Thought to have convinced the Council that polyphonic masses should be kept in worship • Reflects the council’s desire for a clear projection of the sacred text • Written for a cappella choir of six voices parts • Soprano • Alto • Two tenors • Two basses
Listening ExamplePope Marcellus Mass • Written in 3 sections • Kyrie eleison – Lord have mercy upon us • Christeeleison – Christ have mercy upon us • Kyrie eleison – Lord have mercy upon us • Text is short & words are repeated • Expresses calm supplication (to ask humbly) • Rhythm flows continuously • Begins in a thin texture with only some of the voices sounding • As others voices enter, the music become increasingly full and rich
October 4, 2012 Time to correct tests – 15 minutes Secular Music of the Renaissance
Extra Credit Give me the two different styles of sacred music in the Renaissance and how can you tell the difference between the two. (4 points)
Secular Music • Technology • Petrucci developed the printing press • 1501 published 1st polyphonic piece of music printed with moveable type • HarmoniceMusicesOdhecaton A • Every educated person was expected to play an instrument and read notation • Written for groups of solo voices and for solo voice with accompaniment • Imitated natural sounds
Secular Composers • Much more freedom • Composed in common languages (English, Italian, French, German) • Madrigals were the most popularsongs about nature, loveTEXT PAINTING-letting the music sound like what the word means (birds, ascending) • Ballett-songs with fa la in them
Madrigal • A piece for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love • Combines homophonic and polyphonic textures • Uses text painting (word painting) • Originated in Italy around 1520 • 1588 translated into English and English composers began writing
Thomas Weelkes • 1575-1623 • English madrigalist • Organist & church composer • Wrote “As Vesta Was Descending” in 1601 for Queen Elizabeth
As Vesta Was Descending Descending scales Ascending scales Rapid descending figures As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending She spied a maiden queen the same ascending, attended on by all the shepherds swain, to whom Diana’s darlings came running down amain
Two voices, Three voices; all voices. Solo voice. First two by two, Then three by three together Leaving their goddess all alone, hasted thither, and mingling with the shepherds of her train with mirthful tunes her presence entertain.
Brief joyful phrase imitated among voices; long notes in bass Long live fair Oriana!
Ballett (Fa-La) • Simpler form than the madrigal • Dance like song for several solo voices • Mostly homophonic in texture • Melody in the highest voice • Same music is repeated for each stanza of the poem • Syllables fa-la are used as refrain • Originated in Italy then went to England
Thomas Morley • 1557-1603 • English composer • Best known for his madrigals
Now is the Month of Maying • Now is the month of Maying, when merry lads are playing! Fa la lalala!Each with his bonny lass, a-dancing on the grass, fa la lalala! • The Spring, clad all in gladness, doth laugh at Winter's sadness! Fa la lalala!And to the bagpipes’ sound, the nymphs tread out the ground! Fa la lalala! • Fie! Then why sit we musing, youth’s sweet delight refusing? Fa la lalala!Say, dainty nymphs and speak! Shall we play barley break? Fa la lalala!
Instrumental Music • Largely adapted from vocal music • Used the harpsichord, organ, or lute • 16th century people started writing instrumental pieces • Developed instrumental forms • Theme and variation • Intended for dancing • Passamezzo – duple meter • Galliard – triple meter
Renaissance Instruments • Straight Cornet • Sackbut • Recorder • Flute • Shawm • Kortholt • Dulcian • Rauschpfeife • Hirtenschalmei
Passamezzo by Pierre FrancisqueCaroubel • Illustrate the Renaissance practice pairing contrasting court dances in duple and trip meter • Written by Michael Praetorius – German composer and theorist • Passamezzo is a stately dance in duple meter • Written for six unspecified instrumental parts • Consists of 3 brief sections (a, b, c) each ending with a cadence and brief pause
Galliard by Pierre FrancisqueCaroubel • Helps to illustrate the duple and triple meters • Has essentially the same melody as the passamezzo but is in triple meter • Written for 5 unspecified instrumental parts • It also is in three parts (a, b, c), each ending with a cadence and a brief pause
Venetian School • 16th century – Venice became a center of instrumental and vocal music • The focal point for music was St. Mark’s Cathedral • Employed up to 20 instrumentalists and 20 singers for ceremonies • Music director and organist were Adrian Willaert , Andrea Gabrieli & Giovanni Gabrieli • Called the Venetian school
St. Mark’s Cathedral • 2 seperated choir lofts • Each had an organ • Music was written for multiple choirs and groups of instruments • Unlike most Renaissance music, Venetian vocal music was written with exclusive instrumental parts • This started to bring the music close the Baroque style • Had a tendency toward homophonic texture rather than polyphonic
Giovanni Gabrieli • 1555-1612 • Wrote organ and instrumental ensemble works • Most important – polychoral motets (motets for two or more choirs) • Sonata pian e forte is most famous earliest instrument ensemble pieces
Gabrieli • Used dynamics • Used specified instruments • Music called for an enormous number of performers • Brilliantly exploit contrasts of register, sonority and tone color
Plaudite by Giovanni Gabrieli • Polychoral motet • Intended for a joyful ceremony at St. mark’s Cathedral • Latin text • 12 voice parts divided into 3 choirs
Plaudite Listening Guide Plaudite, Psallite, Jubilate Deo omnis terra: Alleluia, benedicantDominum omnesgentes, collaudanteseum: Clap your hands, sing praises, sing joyfully to God, all the earth. Alleluia, Let all the nations bless the Lord, together praising Him.
Alleluia, quiafecitnobiscum Dominus misericordiamsuam: Alleluia, et captivamduxitcaptivitatem, admirabilis et gloriosus In saecula: Alleluia Alleluia, For the Lord hat acted in His mercy with us. Alleluia. And led captivity captive. Admirable and glorious He is forever Alleluia
October 9, 2012 Listening example of Gabrieli Extra Credit Question Artists of the Renaissance Period Exploratory
Extra Credit Question • How can you tell the difference between a madrigal and a ballet?
LEONARDO DA VINCI • Renaissance Man (scientific discovery, inventor, artist, mathematician) • Heavily influenced by nature to lead him in his artistic endeavors • Most famous works: Mona Lisa and the Last Supper