Activity Series Is anything going to happen when I mix these things together?
Metals in Water • Potassium reacts vigorously with water in a single displacement reaction • 2K + 2HOH 2KOH + H2 • Copper does not react with water. • Cu + HOH No Reaction • Just because an equation can be written does not mean that it will occur.
Activity Series gives the likelihood that a reaction will occur, based on the location of the elements on the list • Elements that are higher on the series will replace lower elements in single displacement reactions • They are said to have a “higher reactivity” • AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) • 2 AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s) • Zn(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s) →
Many of the active metals toward the top of the activity series will react with water or steam: • metal + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen • 2 Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) • Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) • Cu(s) + HOH(l) NR
Metals above H2 in the activity series will react with acids to produce the metal salt and hydrogen gas: • Metal + acid → salt + hydrogen • Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) • Cu(s) + HCl(aq) NR
Some halogens will displace other halide ions • Cl2 + 2NaI → I2 + NaCl • I2 + NaCl → NR
Single Replacement Reactions • NaCl(aq) + F2(g) → • Li(s) + SnI2(aq) → • Fe(s) + H2O(l) → • Al(s) + HC2H3O2(aq) → • CaBr2(aq) + I2(g) → • Mg(s) + LiOH(aq) →
Single Replacement Reactions • Zinc metal is added to aqueous copper (II) sulfate • Sodium metal is added to an aluminum nitrate solution • Solid iron is added to sulfuric acid • Silver is added to aqueous calcium bromide • Barium is added to hydrochloric acid • Gaseous iodine is bubbled through a zinc fluoride solution