Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions The Activity Series: …A way to determine whether a single displacement reaction will occur or not.
Calcium Elements at the “top” are the most reactive and will always displace less reactive ones. will replace Magnesium which will replace Zinc which will replace Nickel which will replace Copper which will replace Gold, which loses to everyone else.
F Cl Br I most active This is the activity series for metals But there is one for some non-metals as well least active
We can use the activity series to Predict Single Displacement Reactions: Which of the following reactions will proceed: CaCl2 + Na → Ni(SO4) + Sn → MgBr2 + Cl2 → Fe(OH)2 + Pb →
Predicting Products of Double Displacement Reactions: The Solubility Rules: …A way to determine the state symbols of the products of a double displacement reaction.
An Ionic Compound Dissolves: A Covalent Compound Dissolves:
What is Dissolving ? When an ionic compound (eg salt) dissolves in water, the compound disassociates. (breaks apart into cations and anions) Ex: Ca(NO3)2(s)Ca2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) When a covalent compound (eg sugar) dissolves in water, it does not disassociate. Molecules of the covalent compounds simply disperse due to attraction with polar water molecules.
Precipitates and Solubility Rules When aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are poured together, sometimes an insoluble solid forms, called a precipitate. “If you’re not a part of the solution, your part of the precipitate”
NaOH(aq) + FeCl3(aq)® NaCl ( ) + Fe(OH)3 ( ) aq s Which one is the precipitate? for example: The “Solubility Rules” or “Solubility Tables” say that Halides (F-, Cl-, Br-, etc.) are soluble, but most Hydroxides (OH-) are insoluble. So, the solid must be Iron Hydroxide. (aq) (s)
Solubility Rules • Alkali metals and and Ammonia (NH4+) compounds are soluble • Nitrates and Acetates are soluble • Halides are soluble, (Cl-, Br-, F-, I-) except those of Ag+, Pb+2, and Hg2+2 • Sulfates are soluble, except those of Pb+2, Ba+2, Hg+2,and Ca+2
Solubility Rules (Con’t) • Most hydroxides are only slightly soluble (insoluble) except NaOH and KOH • Sulfides, carbonates, chromates, and phosphates are insoluble. Higher numbered rules win; Na2S is soluble because rule # 1 wins over rule # 6