Grammar and usage -ing form —used as an adjective or adverb 江苏省淮安中学
一、The -ing form — used as Attribute （-ing形式作定语） sleepingstudents a boring lesson a smilingface
boiling water flying kites
the rising sun a dancing girl
(1) a swimming man (2) a swimming pool
(1) a walking man =a man who is walking (2) a walking stick =a stick for walking What’s the difference between (1) and (2)?
小 结 1 -ing形式作定语既可表示动作正在进行（如例（1）），此时相当于一个定语从句；又可表示所修饰名词的性质或用途（如例（2））。
a running man The man running in the picture is Liu Xiang. attribute 相当于： The man who is running in the picture is Liu Xiang.
Rewrite the following sentences with attributive clauses. The teacher teaching us English is Mr. Qi. =The teacherwho is teaching us Englishis Mr. Qi.
The people sitting behind us are all teachers. The expert coming from Huai’an is a lady called Ms Cai. =The people who are sitting behind us are all teachers. =The expert who comes from Huai’an is a lady called Ms Cai.
Translate the following phrases. a reading room 阅览室 洗衣机 a washing machine an exciting evening 激动人心的夜晚 an interesting crosstalk 有趣的相声
小 结 2 单个的-ing形式作定语，放在所修饰的名词前面；-ing短语作定语则放在所修饰的名词之后。
卧铺车 a sleeping car a smoking room 吸烟室 听力练习 listening practice 开幕词 an opening speech 售票处 a booking office 自来水 running water
2.The -ing form — used as Object Complement（-ing形式作宾语补足语） I heardthe girl singing in the classroom. I noticed a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open. The baby watchedhis dad shaving his face with great interest. We have the fire burning all day.
小 结 3 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语常放在宾语后面，表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作，强调一个过程或一种状态。
能跟-ing形式作宾语补足语的常见动词有： make, let, have, keep, leave, look at, see, watch, hear, listen to, notice, find, feel 等。 “五让、三看、两听、一注意、一发现、一感觉”。简单又好记！ 怎么记？
3.The -ing form — used as predicative (-ing形式作表语) 1. Our trip was disappointing. We did not find any unusual plants. 2. The programme for the weekend looks exciting. I am looking forward to it.
4. The news was shocking. All the three boats had sunk in the storm. 5. The report from Cook was encouraging. The captain decided to attack the following night. 6. It was astonishingto see the animals and plants that are found nowhere else in the world.
Practice Fill in the blanks with the verb given in its proper form. 1. Sixty million people _____ (live) in rural areas are moving to the cities every year. 2. The bottle _________ (contain) the poison was sent to the laboratory. living containing
sitting 3. The man _____ (sit) on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University. 4. Who is that girl _______ (walk) along the river? 5. The children _________ (practise) playing the violin over there will give a performance next week. walking practising
standing 6. The man with sun-glasses ________ (stand) near a car is a detective. 7. The old lady ______ (talk) to the children is a famous musician. 8. The person _________ (translate) the songs can speak seven languages. talking translating
9. I saw them ______(force) the door open with a hammer. 10. We heard them _________ (quarrel) about money after the concert; they looked very angry. 11. I heard him ________ (drop) lots of coins into the collecting tin. forcing quarreling dropping
performing 12. You can see them __________ (perform) every night this week at the New Theatre. 13. I could hear them __________ (whisper) to each other during the first part of the play. 14. We watched the army _______ (march) down the street towards the park. whispering marching
entering sharing 15. I saw the people _______ (enter) the theatre, and there were 286 of them. 16. We watched three old men _______ (share) their food with each other. 17. We watched the children ______ (dive) into the water from the top diving board. 18. I noticed you _______ the performers with the ticket sales. That was kind of you. diving helping
Having worked side by side with many environmentalists, I know that a healthy environment and stable economy should be possible at the same time. A verb-ing has perfect form, e.g., having worked
Rewrite the following sentences. 1. She gave her opinion about the new building. Then she left the meeting. Having given her opinion about the new building, she left the meeting. 2. She made one last effort to see her husband. Then she returned home. Having made one last effort to see her husband, she returned home.
3. I admired her writing for many years. Then I finally met her. Having admired her writing for many years, I finally met her. 4. I was interested in the Koories for many years. Then I decided to learn their language. Having been interested in the Koories for many years, I decided to learn their language.
A. This is a letter to the editor of a newspaper. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct forms using the grammar rules you have learnt. Dear Sir/ Madam, I am delighted by your newspaper’s decision to start a campaign for protecting the environment. I am glad
that you have asked readers to write in with their suggestions. The state of our parks is very (1) ________ (shock), with rubbish everywhere. I used to find a trip to the park very (2) _______ (relax). Now I just find it (3) _____ (tire) because I have to pick up the rubbish where I shocking relaxing tiring
am going to sit. The grass is covered in plastic bags and food, and I am sad that the young people of today do not clean up after themselves when they have been to the park. It is (4) ____________ (disappoint) that none of the schools ask their students to do park clean-ups as part of their Science class. Perhaps they disappointing
interesting could start doing this. There are so many (5) __________ (interest) animals and insects (6) _____ (live) in our parks. It would be a shame if they were destroyed because of people’s activities in the park. Yours, Wang Qiang living
B. Read this new report and fill in the blanks with words from the box below. following sleeping pleasing exciting walking moving falling keeping (1) _______ News for Animal Lovers! Two people were arrested yesterday at a Paris airport for bringing animals into Exciting
Europe from South America illegally. One of the customs officers was watching the arrivals very closely. He could see a woman (2) _______ in front of a group. Then he saw feathers (3) ______ from under her coat. Having seen this, the customs officer asked the woman to come walking falling
over to his desk. He was surprised to find ten birds inside her coat. There was a short fat gentleman (4) ________ her. Another customs officer called him over when it seemed he had a (5) _______ stomach. On taking off his jacket, a (6) _______ tortoise was found on his following moving sleeping
keeping stomach. Apparently he had traveled on the plane like this, (7) _______ the tortoise hidden in a blanket. Such arrests are very (8) _______ for Paris officers. pleasing
二、-ing形式作状语 -ing短语在句子中可作状语，来修饰谓语动词或整个句子，表示动作发生的时间、原因、条件、结果、让步或伴随等情况。-ing短语作状语一般表示一个次要的动作， 一般都可以变为相应的状语从句或并列句。
1. 作时间状语 -ing短语作时间状语要置于句首。如： Hearing the bad news, they couldn’t help crying. =When they heard the bad news, they couldn’t help crying. 当听到这个不幸的消息时，他们情不自禁地哭了起来。
Having received his letter, I decided to write back. =After I had received his letter, I decided to write back. 收到他的信后，我决定给他回信。 2. 作原因状语 -ing短语作原因状语置于句首。如： Being so angry, he couldn’t go to sleep.
=Because he was so angry, he couldn’t go to sleep. 因为太生气了，他不能入睡。 Having been to the Great Wall many times, he didn’t go last week.=Because (As) he had been to the Great Wall many times, he didn’t go last week. 因为他已经去过长城许多次，上周他就没去。
3. 作条件状语 -ing作条件状语置于句首或句末。如： Working hard, you will succeed. =If you work hard, you will succeed. 如果你勤奋一点，你就会成功。 Being given more attention, the trees could have grown better.
=If they had been given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果对这些树再多注意些，它们可能长得更好。 4. 作让步状语 -ing短语作让步状语，可置于句首或 句末，常与even if, though 连用。如：
Though working from morning till night, his father didn’t get enough food. =Although his father worked from morning till night, he didn’t get enough food. 虽然他父亲从早到晚拼命地干活，但是他还是挣不到足够的吃的。
5. 作伴随状语 置于句首或句末。如： They came into the classroom, singing and laughing. =They sang and laughed; they came into the classroom.他们又唱又笑地走进教室。
注意： 1. -ing短语与when, while, though, until, if等连词连用时，相当于这些连词引导的一个从句。如： When working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. =When he worked in the factory, he was an advanced worker.
Though willing to attend the party, he refused the invitation. =Though he was willing to attend the party, he refused the invitation. While staying in Beijing, he came to see me twice. =While he was staying in Beijing, he came to see me twice.
If playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. =If you play all day, you will waste your valuable time. Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. =Though it was raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.
2. 动词-ing形式在句中作状语时，其逻辑主语与主句的主语保持一致。如： He traveled on the plane like this, keeping the tortoise hidden in a blanket. = When he traveled on the plane like this, he kept the tortoise hidden in a blanket.
Choose the correct sentence. 1. a. Hearing the news, tears ran down her face. b. Hearing the news, she cried out sadly. 2. a. Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. b. Entering the classroom, nobody was found in it.
3. a. Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. b. Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden. 4. a. Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking. b. I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.