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Dalton et al. New Politics in Advanced Democracies. In what areas do you think democracies might improve? What do you think are some weaknesses associated with democracies? What were some reasons for decline in citizens’ trust for democratic institutions?.
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Dalton et al. New Politics in Advanced Democracies
In what areas do you think democracies might improve? • What do you think are some weaknesses associated with democracies? • What were some reasons for decline in citizens’ trust for democratic institutions?
demand for improvement of representative democracies • demand for direct influence by creating the institutions of direct democracy • demand for influence through advocacy creating channels through which citizen groups could influence policy deliberation and policy formation Three waves of demand
1- Increasing participation • 2- Ensuring a more representative delegation, in terms of… • 3- Giving people the chance to have more influence over policy making • 4- Reducing the impact of funding on election results • 5- Providing women with more opportunities • 6- Restrictions on term limits and financial support to reduce the influence of interest groups over politicians • 7- Greater transparency and accountability • 8- Election to the office rather than assignment Representative democracy
Referendums, initiatives, plebiscites, and recalls • Opposing or approving a policy • there were 118 statewide referenda in the United States during 1950s but 378 such referenda during the 1990s. • No need for mediating institutions, citizens influence the decision making directly • Question 1: then what is the utility of parliaments in democracies? • Question 2: what are the benefits of direct democracy? Direct Democracy
Direct interaction of Citizens and public interest groups with the government • Direct participation in policy deliberation and policy formation processes by advocacy and citizen groups. • Citizen groups can • demand information from the government, • bring a decision to the court, and • consult an ombudsman to redress the citizen grievances. Advocacy Democracy
1. Inclusion: with minimal exceptions, all permanent adult residents must have full rights of citizenship. • 2. Political equality: When decisions about policy are made, every citizen must have an equal and effective opportunity to participate. • 3. Enlightened understanding: Within reasonable limits, citizens must have equal and effective opportunities to learn about relevant policy alternatives and their likely consequences. • 4. Control of the agenda: Citizens must have the opportunity to decide which matter are placed on the public agenda, and how. • 5. Effective participation: Before a policy is adopted, all the citizens must have equal and effective opportunities for making their views known to other citizens. Dahl’s five criteria
Dalton and his colloquies compare representative, direct, and advocacy democracies and conclude that the institutional changes bring new problems with them while improving inclusion and participation.