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Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge

The Qing Empire . Decline of the Manchus. Opium and RebellionBritish problems with ChinaThe opium tradeReactions by ChinaLin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; 1785-1850), 1839Opium War (1839-1842)Concessions to BritainTaiping (T'ai p'ing) Rebellion, 1853-1864Under pressure from Britain, the Qing agreed to legalization of the opium trade, and the cession of the peninsula of Kowloon.

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Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge

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    1. Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge

    2. The Qing Empire

    3. Decline of the Manchus Opium and Rebellion British problems with China The opium trade Reactions by China Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; 1785-1850), 1839 Opium War (1839-1842) Concessions to Britain Taiping (Tai ping) Rebellion, 1853-1864 Under pressure from Britain, the Qing agreed to legalization of the opium trade, and the cession of the peninsula of Kowloon

    4. Efforts at Reform Court started listening to reform-minded officials who called for: Self-strengthening Chinese foreign and domestic policy: Western technology alongside Confucian principles and institutions: East for Essence, West for Practical Use Call for reform in education and political institutions

    5. Climax of Imperialism in China Russia, France, and Britain penetrate China Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895 Emperor Guangxu (Kuang Hsu) Kang Youwei (Kang Yu-wei) Empress Dowager Cixi (Tzu Hsi) Opening the Door to China United States Open Door policy Boxer Rebellion, 1900

    6. Collapse of the Old Order Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905 Election for a national assembly, 1910 New provincial elite Reforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workers The Rise of Sun Yat-Sen (1866-1925) Revive China Society Revolutionary Alliance Three Peoples Principles of nationalism, democracy, and peoples livelihood Revolt of October, 1911 General Yaun Shikai (Yaun Shih-kai) Revolution or collapse of the old order?

    7. Foreign Possessions and Spheres of Influence About 1900

    8. Chinese Society in Transition Obstacles to Industrialization: Traditional methods of production Borrow little from Western technology Rapid increase in the population led to smaller plots of land and tenant farmers Western presence accelerated Chinese development Impact of imperialism on the economy Introduction of modern means of production, transport, and communications Creation of an export market Steady integration of Chinese market into 19th C global economy Change: School of Thought by Russian Marxist Vladimir and Mao Zedong Destruction of local industry with profits flowing abroad

    9. Chinese Society in Transition, contd Daily Life Changes in coastal cities Increased Western cultural presence Education Status of Women Qing-era women to be home bound (foot binding) Worked in factories (cotton mills and silk industry) Active in dissident activities (Taiping Rebellion, Boxer movement, 1911 revolution) Qiu Jin, female revolutionary Missionaries opened girls schools

    11. A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan Isolation Emergent commercial and manufacturing center Tokugawa feudalistic system falling apart Factionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracy An End to Isolation Commodore Matthew C. Perry, 1853 Treaty of Kanagawa Townsend Harris, 1858 Sat-Cho alliance, 1863 Rebel armies attacked shoguns palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West

    12. Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executive Charter Oath, 1868 Genro, elder statesmen Systematic study of Western political systems Factions appeared: Liberal Party and Progressive Party The Constitution of 1890 Based on Bismarckian model with authority vested in the executive branch Constitution was a gift to emperor Meiji oligarchs chose members of cabinet Upper house of Parliament was appointed with equal legislative powers with lower house Kokutai, national polity uniqueness of Japanese system based on supreme authority of emperor Result: democratic in form, despotic in practice Power remained in hands of ruling oligarchy

    13. Meiji Restoration, contd Meiji Economics Land reform Japans industrial revolution Impact of changes on the rural population Building a Modern Social Structure Military structure Education Changing culture Civil Code, 1898

    14. Meiji Restoration, contd Traditional Values and Womens Rights Conservatives imposed restrictions Returned to traditional social relationships Traditional values had a legal basis in Constitution of 1890 De-emphasis on individual rights Placed women within the role of the family End of 19th C, girls sent to work in textile mills 1984-1912, women 60% of labor force Export revenues allowed Japan to develop its heavy industry and military prowess Few rewards for women 1900, women prohibited from joining political organizations or attend public meetings Restriction repealed in 1922

    15. Joining the Imperialist Club Conflict with China Ryukyu Islands Korea opens ports to Japan Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea Treaty of Shimonoseki Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Korea annexed in 1908

    16. Japanese Overseas Expansion During the Meiji

    18. Japanese Culture in Transition Japan invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and United States Tokyo School of Fine Arts

    19. Total Humiliation

    20. The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above 40 year transformation from feudal, agrarian society to an industrializing, technologically advanced society An incomplete revolution because economic and social inequalities still existed? Meiji leaders did put Japan on a path of economic and political development Removed unequal treaty provisions Transition from traditional to modern society done without violence or social or political revolutions other countries endured revolution from above restructuring of society by its own ruling group

    21. Fusing East and West Amalgam of old and new, native and foreign New society that was uniquely Japanese Undesirable consequences: Meiji politics despotic Fused warrior ethic and feudal loyalty with dynamics of modern industrial capitalism to create a state dedicated to possessing material wealth and national power Kokutai and capitalism Policy of repression at home Expansion abroad With defeat in war, Japan disconnected from national development to a pluralistic society Dedicated to peace and cooperation with neighbors

    22. Discussion Questions Why did the Qing dynasty decline and ultimately collapse, and what role did the Western powers play in this process? To what degree was the Meiji Restoration a revolution, and to what degree did it succeed in transforming Japan? How did China and Japan each respond to Western pressures in the 19th C, and what implication did their different responses have for each nations history?

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