Preview • Examining HTML • Writing source code • Placing text on the page • Formatting text • Creating headings and horizontal rules • Creating lists • Adding color to your Web pages • Introducing graphics • Adding hypertext links • Creating graphic hyperlinks
Lesson 1: Examining HTML • Define HTML • Identify HTML design issues • Identify Web page elements
World Wide Web Web: The Web, or World Wide Web, is the area of the Internet that allows you to display text and graphics and play videos, and movies. With appropriate equipment, you can even receive or broadcast live audio and video.
Web site Web site: A Web site stores information that has been organized into individual hypermedia documents, Web pages, and holds it on a server for distribution across the Internet.
Hyperlink Hyperlink: A hyperlink, or link, usually appears as colored, underlined text or a graphic on a Web page. A link is a jumping-off point for moving from one subject to another.
Hypermedia document Hypermedia document: A hypermedia document is a document with a format that can be displayed online, in a browser. In practice, hypermedia documents are often called HTML files, although they may contain many other types of files.
Defining HTML • Using HTML tags • Creating files
Defining HTML HTML: HTML is a tag-based markup language you use to create Web pages. Browser: A browser is a software application that allows you to view HTML documents, whether Web pages or HTML files, on your own computer. Two popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
Defining HTML Tags: Tags are instructions that specify how a browser should display the text and graphics on Web pages. Source code: Source code is the tags and text you include in an HTML file.
Examining HTML Design Issues • Different browsers will display the same HTML document in different ways Settings that affect the display of Web pages:
Examining HTML Design Issues • HTML standards are set and maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium Backward compatibility: Backward compatibility is the idea that earlier versions of HTML, and the Web pages developed with those versions, should not be made obsolete. Browsers must accommodate several versions.
Key elements of HTML 4.0 • Provisions for accessibility — alternative displays and multimedia formats for persons with special physical needs • The use of style sheets, which are collections of tags that can be applied as a group to an HTML document • The use of Document Type Definitions (DTDs), which define and apply certain building blocks for similar types of Web documents
Lesson 2: Writing Source Code • Gather the tools for writing HTML code • Use tags • Create an HTML document • View an HTML document in a browser
Gathering the Tools forWriting HTML Code • HTML Web page authors require three basic tools: • Computer with graphics capabilities • Text editor • Browser software application Text editor: A text editor is a software application used to create and manipulate text, such as Notepad and WordPad.
Extensions Extensions: Extensions are tags added to HTML documents to identify certain types of files included in those documents. Examples include .wav for WAV audio files, or .jpg for a certain type of graphics file.
Using Tags • Tags serve as the foundation of HTML documents • Tags define the elements and characteristics of HTML documents Attributes: Attributes define a specific application of a tag. You associate an attribute with a tag by including it within the tag brackets.
Using Tags • Sample tags with attributes:
Using Tags • Four sets of standard HTML tags:
Lesson 3: Placing Text on the Page • Format paragraphs • Create line breaks • Format addresses • Create block quotes • Use the Preformat tag
Formatting Paragraphs Paragraph: In a Web document, a paragraph is one or more lines of text that are kept together on a page. A paragraph may or may not include line breaks. • Use the <P> tag to announce the beginning of a new paragraph
Creating Line Breaks Line break: The line break ends a line of text instantly and makes the following text or element flow to the next line.
Formatting Addresses Address formatting – Notepad
Formatting Addresses Address formatting – browser
Creating Block Quotes Block quotes: Block quotes are indented sections of text used to offset particular elements of a document.
Using the Preformat Tag • The <PRE> tag and its required closing tag, </PRE>, define an area in which browsers display text exactly as it is typed in the HTML document • Normally, a browser ignores spaces and tabs, but the Preformat tags allow you to insert spaces or tabs • The Preformat tag can save you time, especially before you learn to create tables in HTML
Lesson 4: Formatting Text • Add text attributes • Change text size
Adding Text Attributes Text attributes: Text attributes are HTML codes you use to offset or emphasize text in HTML documents. Content-based tags: Content-based tags signal the browser to interpret the purpose or content of the text. Although all browsers recognize content-based tags, each may display the marked text in a different way.
Adding Text Attributes Format-specific tags: Format-specific tags define the appearance of the text but do not provide specification about its content.
Changing Text Size • In HTML, you specify text size in relative terms, plus or minus values, rather than in the point sizes • Size 1 is the smallest setting, and size 7 is the largest • Basefont tag defines the current body text size —the basefont size • Use Font tags around a word or phrase to make it smaller or larger than the surrounding text
Lesson 5: Creating Headings and Horizontal Rules • Create headings • Create horizontal rules
Headings and Horizontal Rules Headings: Headings are specially formatted titles or topic lines of text. Horizontal rules: Horizontal rules are lines used to divide areas of a document.
Creating Headings • Using standard heading sizes • Like text, headings are based on a relative sizing scale • Level 1 is the largest, and Level 6 is the smallest • Customizing headings
Creating Horizontal Rules • Setting the thickness of rules Pixel: A pixel, or picture element, is a single point in a graphic element. Pixels are so close together that they appear connected.
Creating Horizontal Rules • Defining the width of rules across a page Actual pixel widths: Actual pixel widths means that your rule line will appear the same size in every instance, as long as the display resolution does not change. Relative percentage widths: Relative percentage widths will always appear the same width in relation to the size of the browser window.
Lesson 6: Creating Lists • Define basic list types • Create unordered lists • Create ordered lists • Create definition lists
Defining Basic List Types Unordered lists: Unordered lists are collections of related items displayed in no particular sequence—like many shopping lists. The lines of unordered lists are not numbered or lettered. Ordered lists: Ordered lists are collections of items in a specific pattern or order. Step-by-step instructions and tables of contents are examples of ordered lists.
Defining Basic List Types Definition lists: Definition lists present collections of terms and explanations. A glossary is a good example of a definition list. List tags: List tags define the style of a list. Every list requires an opening list tag and a closing list tag. Line tag: A line tag indicates to a browser that the text following it is a list item. A series of line tags makes up a list.
Creating Unordered Lists • Create unordered lists using the <UL> opening tag and the required </UL> closing tag • Unordered bulleted lists are the easiest lists to create and probably the most widely used
Creating Ordered Lists • Ordered lists are most useful when the sequence of list items is important • Ordered lists use the <OL> </OL> list tags