Concern about Amazon Deforestation • Loss of biodiversity • Impact on climate • Moderating impact on climate • Carbon sink • Global forest destruction by burning second largest contribution to GHG emission. • Rights of indigenous populations
Causes of Deforestation • Cattle ranching: @ 70% of deforestation in Brazil • Land tenure: • 5% of landowners occupy 70% of arable land; 70% of small landowners occupy 5% of land; • In Amazon land granted to those who clear it; • Cattle ranching subsidized; • Demand for cheap beef in international markets • Servicing debt, tackling poverty • Logging • Mining of copper and other minerals • Oil exploration (Ecuador) • Palm, rubber, oil plantations • Highway projects – Poloroneste project (BR-364 )
Weak International Regimes • International Tropical Timber Agreement (1983; 1994) • To regularize trade in tropical timber • 1994 goal of producers of tropical timber to export only sustainably harvested timber by 2000. • The Bali Partnership Fund to assist investment to meet the sustainability objective • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) • Asserts states’ “sovereign rights over their own biodiversity” • Identification, monitoring and assessment of biodiversity • Preparation of national plans, strategies, and programs (voluntary approach to conservation and sustainable use)
Why Do We Have Weak Regimes Related to Tropical Deforestation?
NGO Action • NGOs organize in transnational advocacy networks (glued by principles, values, information, resources). “Principle networks?” • Strategies: information; symbolic politics; leverage politics (links issue to money, goods, trade); accountability politics
Boomerang Strategy • If channels of influence blocked domestically: NGOs bypass their government and ally across borders; • NGOs in North lobby governments, companies, IGOs • Governmental and monetary pressure on • Condition for success: issues involving bodily harm, legal inequality, symbolic resources; dense networks (legitimacy); vulnerability of target government; availability of leverage.
The Polonoroeste Campaign • Main Actors: • Brazilian government • World Bank • US Congress/Department of Treasury • US NGOs • Rubber Tapers (Chico Medes) • Indigenous Population • Land owners/cattle ranchers • Rondonia state government
Outcomes • World Bank: • temporary suspends loan disbursement for Poloronoeste; • internal reform; • Planaforo • Institutionalize environmental protection • Local NGO access to decision making but little influence • Chico Mendes shot
Effective Campaign against Deforestation? • Yes: pressure on WB policies and procedures; voice to local population; procedural access to decision making; • No: did not address major imbalances (power between ranchers and indigenous groups, interests in exports of beef/timber; land tenure, etc.)
Annual Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon 1988-1996 • Deforestation 2001-2002: 25,500 square km (base on satellite data) Source: WRI, World Resources 1998-1999, based on Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE)
Amazon Regional Protected Areas (ARPA) • President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's: 1998 pledge to protect at least 10% of Brazil's Amazon forests • ARPA: Launched at Johannesburg Summit 2002 • Brazil-World Bank agreement signed April 2003 • Partners: • Brazilian government: US$18.1m. • WWF-Brazil: US$11.5m • WB and GEF: US$30m. Over 4 years
ARPA Scope • Triple the amount of Amazon forest under protection to 500,000 sq. km. Equivalent of 12% of total forest • Includes sample of all 23 Amazonian eco-regions • Will include both ecological reserves and extractive reserves • Design management plans, surveillance, research