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Evolving Values & Principles For Career & Technical Education

Evolving Values & Principles For Career & Technical Education

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Evolving Values & Principles For Career & Technical Education

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  1. Evolving Values & Principles ForCareer & Technical Education By Reynaldo L. Martinez Jr. PhD Professor & Head Department of Adult and Career Education Valdosta State University

  2. CTE’s Challenge • Career & Technical Education is in a Constant State of Change & Evolution; • The Main Question Remains the Same: “On What Basis should CTE Professionals Design, Develop & Implement Appropriate & Effective Programs in a More Expansive & Inclusive Context?”

  3. Theoretical Foundation • Philosophy • Principles • Policies • Practices

  4. Key Concepts • Philosophy • A conceptual framework for synthesis & evaluation that represents a system of values to serve as a basis for making decisions: • Helps us to Decide: What is True? What is Real? What is Good?

  5. Key Concepts • Principle • Generalizations that serve as guidelines for program & curriculum construction, evaluation, & policy development

  6. Key Concepts • Policy • a definite course or method of action … to guide & determine present & future decisions • Practice • actual performance or application;

  7. Key Concepts • Congruency between Practice, Policy, Principles & Philosophy is Important to judge “goodness of fit” or if we are being “true” to what we believe. • If we do not know what we believe, then how can we know if practice is “good” or “right”?

  8. Missions of CTE • Promote Individual Opportunity – Mainly in the Public Education Sector; • Promote Economic Growth by Solving Human Performance Problems – Mainly in the Private Workforce Sector; • One’s Philosophy will Dictate which Mission May be Favored over the Other; (Grey & Herr, 1998)

  9. Pragmatic Humanism • What is True? Human Experience; In a State of Constant Change • What is Good? Useful for Human Beings; Allows for Self Actualization • What is Right? Democratic Ideals & Values; Freedom, Justice, & Self Worth

  10. Historic CTE Principles • Prosser & Allen’s “16 Theorems of Vocational Education” (1925) • Barlow’s “Seven Overarching Principles” (1967) – Linked to National Priorities & Values • Miller’s “People, Programs & Processes” Principles (1983) • Copa & Wolff (2002) – 13 Principles for Change in Secondary & Postsecondary CTE

  11. Perkins Act of 2006 • Academic & Technical Standards for High Skill – High Wage Jobs; • Integration of Academic & Technical Knowledge & Skills; • Articulation between Secondary & Post Secondary Programs; • Increased Accountability Regarding Positive Outcomes Via Performance Measures;

  12. What’s the Plan? • Adjust our Programs as Goals & Requirements Change; • Prosser, Barlow, & Miller Provided Practical Guidelines; • Copa & Wolff began to List Certain Values such as “Quality” & “Inclusiveness”; • Need a Value-Based Set of Principles to Guide Policy & Practice;

  13. Fundamental Values For Career & Technical Education • Accessibility • Accountability • Equity • Learning • Usefulness • Safety

  14. Accessibility Principles • Career & Technical Education Should Be Open To All; • Career & Technical Education Should Be Part of the Public System of Comprehensive Education; • Articulation & Coordination of Programs are Central to the Purposes of Career & Technical Education;

  15. Accessibility Principles • The Career Awareness & Investigation are Essential Components of Career & Technical Education; • Career Guidance & Counseling are Essential Components of Career & Technical Education;

  16. Accountability Principles • Career & Technical Education mustbe Accountable to its Constituents & Stakeholders; • Needs of the Community are Reflected in Career & Technical Education Programs; • Advice from the Community is Sought in Providing Programs for Career & Technical Ed.; • Curricula for Career & Technical Education are Derived from Requirements in the World of Work;

  17. Accountability Principles • Job Entry, Advancement &/or Higher Education are Outcomes of Career & Technical Education; • Research on a Continual Basis is Fundamental to the Dynamics and Progress of Career & Technical Education; • Job Facilitation Service is a Responsibility of Career & Technical Education; • Completer Follow-Up is a Vital to Career & Technical Education;

  18. Equity Principles • Individuals with Special Needs are Served Through Career & Technical Education; • Elimination of Gender Bias & Stereotyping is Promoted Through Career & Technical Education; • Diverse Students & Perspectives are Beneficial to Career & Technical Education;

  19. Learning Principles • Lifelong Learning is Promoted Through Career & Technical Education; • Student Leadership is an Integral Feature of Career & Technical Education; • Critical Contextual & Experiential Learning are at the Constructive Pedagogical Roots of Career & Technical Education; • Career & Technical Education Curriculum is Competency-Based;

  20. Learning Principles • Supervised Occupational Experience is Provided Through Career & Technical Education; • Evaluation is a Continuous Process in Career & Technical Education; • Teachers of Career & Technical Education are Both Professionally & Occupationally Prepared;

  21. Usefulness Principles • A Positive Work Ethic is Promoted Through Career & Technical Education; • Families of Occupations are the Basis for Developing Curricula for Career & Technical Ed. at All Levels; • Continuous Update and Improvement are Hallmarks of Career & Technical Education;

  22. Usefulness Principles • Comprehensive Planning is Required in Career & Technical Education; • Innovation is Stressed in Career & Technical Ed.; • Federal Legislation for Career & Technical Education is a Reflection of National Priorities & Provides Direction;

  23. Safety Principles • Physical, Psychological and Emotional Safety are Paramount in Career & Technical Education;

  24. Advantage of Value-Based Principles • When Focusing on Values at the Basis of Particular Principles, Very Compelling Arguments can be made for Adoption of Particular Policies & Practices; • Have Defensible Position for Program Planning, Curricular Decisions, and Instructional Practices;

  25. For Your Consideration • “… CTE programs are becoming more academically rigorous and less directly tied to single occupations. CTE is no longer just a training program for workers; today CTE also prepares students for postsecondary work including college as well as lifelong learning. CTE does not replace academic subjects, but rather reinforces academic instruction by incorporating basic academic instruction in a purposeful way into CTE courses. CTE provides meaningful contexts in which students can apply the concepts they learn in academic classrooms in settings that help them to see the real-world relevance of what might otherwise be abstract concepts … what this discussion does not address is a set of guiding principles … (pg. 55-56, Camp & Johnson, 2006)

  26. Evolving Values & Principles For Career & Technical Education By Reynaldo L. Martinez Jr. PhD Valdosta State University