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Binford ThermDetector 3000 Coal Mine Fire Detection System

Binford ThermDetector 3000 Coal Mine Fire Detection System. Anthony Bonventre Bo Deng Luke Figueroa. Overview. Introduction Objective Mechanical Design Electronic Circuits Code Bill of Materials & Prototype Cost Advantages & Disadvantages Conclusion. Introduction: Coal Mine Fires.

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Binford ThermDetector 3000 Coal Mine Fire Detection System

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  1. BinfordThermDetector 3000Coal Mine Fire Detection System Anthony Bonventre Bo Deng Luke Figueroa

  2. Overview • Introduction • Objective • Mechanical Design • Electronic Circuits • Code • Bill of Materials & Prototype Cost • Advantages & Disadvantages • Conclusion

  3. Introduction: Coal Mine Fires • Coal mine fires are burning deposits of coal. • Either human-induced or a result of natural occurrence • Human induced: • Ignition due to mining operations • Naturally occurring: • Lightning • Forest Fires • Spontaneous combustion from heat, sun, water vapor • Most extreme case: Coal Mine Fire lasting for over 30 years

  4. Introduction: Danger to Humans • Various gases can be emitted such as: • Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous Oxides (N2O) • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Quality of life is a concern • The combination of fire burning beneath the surface of the earth, and gases leaking out to the habitation above can be a risk for all human life.

  5. Introduction: Affecting Quality of Life • Coal Mine Fires can affect air, water, and the food supply of the communities above it. • Especially true for coal dependent nations such as China, or coal dependent towns such as Centralia, PA.

  6. Objective • Creation of the BinfordThermDetector 3000 • Fully autonomous robot to traverse a given plot of land • Takes temperatures at each point of the field • Send temperatures via Bluetooth to generate a heatmap • Employ a warning system to alert locals of coal mine fires

  7. Mechanical Design: Servomotors • Two Parallax (Futaba) continuous rotation servomotors • Mounted on Lego chassis • Servo motor was modified to allow easy switching of gears • Epoxy applied to attach Lego axle onto servo head • Allows for individual control and central axis turning

  8. Mechanical Design: Use of Treads • Ease of Movement • Consistent turning • Economical: • Only require two motors to control turning, forward and backward movement

  9. Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Components: • 556 Timer- Dual 555 timer • Each half represents one 555 timer • Share a common ground and Vdd • LED- visual warning • Piezospeaker- auditory warning • The Siren Dilemma • Speaker is audible, LED blinking is too fast • Speaker needs to be at >3000 Hz • LED blinking is visible, speaker is low

  10. Electronic Circuits: Warning System • The Solution: Circuiting • Speaker “half”- produces a high frequency output • LED “half”- produces a low frequency output to display visual • Output of LED “half” controls the rate of Speaker “half” • Takes the high frequency speaker output and “chops” it • LED blinking is visible AND Speaker is audible • Both are in astable mode at the same frequency

  11. Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Finding the Values For LED For Speaker

  12. Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Warning System Circuit Diagram

  13. Electronic Circuits: Navigational • Use of QRD1114 infrared(IR) reflective sensor • Can be analog or digital • Analog- detects ranges of grey or • Digital- detects either white or black • Why? • GPS cannot be used on this scale (2m) • Compass module is too sensitive to magnetism • Mapping area of 80cm x 156cm • Black borders allow light sensors to stop • Simple movements to retrieve data

  14. Electronic Circuits: Navigational • The Map • Mapping area of 80cm x 156cm • Pegboard holes necessitate use of analog mode • Black borders allow light sensors to stop • Simple movements to retrieve data • Analogous to lawn-mowing sweeping pattern

  15. Electronic Circuits: Navigational

  16. Electronic Circuits: Temperature • Use of MLX90614 Infrared Thermometer Module (90° FOV) for surface temperature readings • Digital temperature sensor • Serial interface for easy connection • Placed 1.5cm above the surface to allow temperature readings in a 3cm radius • Use of pegboard to allow even temperature distribution • Temperatures are recorded and mapped onto a heat map

  17. Electronic Circuits: Hall Effect Sensor • Allego A1360 Linear Hall-effect sensor was used in connection with an AD0831 A/D Converter • AD0831 IC allows analog voltage to be converted to digital • Why? • High temperatures affect the magnetic properties of rocks • Hall Effect Sensor is utilized to detect these changes

  18. Electronic Circuits: Hall Effect Sensor • Hall Effect Sensor Circuit Diagram

  19. Code • Navigation- • Handles movement across map by conditional statements • Temperature Readings • Temperature is taken from sensors • Warning System • Alarm goes off when high heat or magnetism is found • Bluetooth interfacing • Transmits data wireless to the Bluetooth • Heat Map Generation • Takes temperature readings and plots them onto a heat map • May be overlayed on Google Maps

  20. Bill of Materials

  21. Bill of Materials: Mass Production Cost

  22. Advantages • Treads allow ease of movement through inclines and point turning • Hall Effect Sensor is a novel method to find heat sources produced by rocks through magnetism • Tightly, integrated system reduces cost and wasted space • Warns locals

  23. Problems Encountered • GPS resolution is too large (2m) • Iterations of map • Gradient- streaks caused imperfections with readings • Line following- navigational logic conflicted • Boundaries- low amounts of error • Gas sensor • Not much sensitivity for gas • Would not be able to discern one gas from another

  24. Conclusion • BinfordThermDetector 3000 allows for • Transversal of land • Wireless transmission of data for quick analysis • Heat map shows areas of high danger • Magnetism uses novel method to detect coal mine fires • Design process is never ending

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