240 likes | 423 Vues
Binford ThermDetector 3000 Coal Mine Fire Detection System. Anthony Bonventre Bo Deng Luke Figueroa. Overview. Introduction Objective Mechanical Design Electronic Circuits Code Bill of Materials & Prototype Cost Advantages & Disadvantages Conclusion. Introduction: Coal Mine Fires.
E N D
BinfordThermDetector 3000Coal Mine Fire Detection System Anthony Bonventre Bo Deng Luke Figueroa
Overview • Introduction • Objective • Mechanical Design • Electronic Circuits • Code • Bill of Materials & Prototype Cost • Advantages & Disadvantages • Conclusion
Introduction: Coal Mine Fires • Coal mine fires are burning deposits of coal. • Either human-induced or a result of natural occurrence • Human induced: • Ignition due to mining operations • Naturally occurring: • Lightning • Forest Fires • Spontaneous combustion from heat, sun, water vapor • Most extreme case: Coal Mine Fire lasting for over 30 years
Introduction: Danger to Humans • Various gases can be emitted such as: • Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous Oxides (N2O) • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Quality of life is a concern • The combination of fire burning beneath the surface of the earth, and gases leaking out to the habitation above can be a risk for all human life.
Introduction: Affecting Quality of Life • Coal Mine Fires can affect air, water, and the food supply of the communities above it. • Especially true for coal dependent nations such as China, or coal dependent towns such as Centralia, PA.
Objective • Creation of the BinfordThermDetector 3000 • Fully autonomous robot to traverse a given plot of land • Takes temperatures at each point of the field • Send temperatures via Bluetooth to generate a heatmap • Employ a warning system to alert locals of coal mine fires
Mechanical Design: Servomotors • Two Parallax (Futaba) continuous rotation servomotors • Mounted on Lego chassis • Servo motor was modified to allow easy switching of gears • Epoxy applied to attach Lego axle onto servo head • Allows for individual control and central axis turning
Mechanical Design: Use of Treads • Ease of Movement • Consistent turning • Economical: • Only require two motors to control turning, forward and backward movement
Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Components: • 556 Timer- Dual 555 timer • Each half represents one 555 timer • Share a common ground and Vdd • LED- visual warning • Piezospeaker- auditory warning • The Siren Dilemma • Speaker is audible, LED blinking is too fast • Speaker needs to be at >3000 Hz • LED blinking is visible, speaker is low
Electronic Circuits: Warning System • The Solution: Circuiting • Speaker “half”- produces a high frequency output • LED “half”- produces a low frequency output to display visual • Output of LED “half” controls the rate of Speaker “half” • Takes the high frequency speaker output and “chops” it • LED blinking is visible AND Speaker is audible • Both are in astable mode at the same frequency
Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Finding the Values For LED For Speaker
Electronic Circuits: Warning System • Warning System Circuit Diagram
Electronic Circuits: Navigational • Use of QRD1114 infrared(IR) reflective sensor • Can be analog or digital • Analog- detects ranges of grey or • Digital- detects either white or black • Why? • GPS cannot be used on this scale (2m) • Compass module is too sensitive to magnetism • Mapping area of 80cm x 156cm • Black borders allow light sensors to stop • Simple movements to retrieve data
Electronic Circuits: Navigational • The Map • Mapping area of 80cm x 156cm • Pegboard holes necessitate use of analog mode • Black borders allow light sensors to stop • Simple movements to retrieve data • Analogous to lawn-mowing sweeping pattern
Electronic Circuits: Temperature • Use of MLX90614 Infrared Thermometer Module (90° FOV) for surface temperature readings • Digital temperature sensor • Serial interface for easy connection • Placed 1.5cm above the surface to allow temperature readings in a 3cm radius • Use of pegboard to allow even temperature distribution • Temperatures are recorded and mapped onto a heat map
Electronic Circuits: Hall Effect Sensor • Allego A1360 Linear Hall-effect sensor was used in connection with an AD0831 A/D Converter • AD0831 IC allows analog voltage to be converted to digital • Why? • High temperatures affect the magnetic properties of rocks • Hall Effect Sensor is utilized to detect these changes
Electronic Circuits: Hall Effect Sensor • Hall Effect Sensor Circuit Diagram
Code • Navigation- • Handles movement across map by conditional statements • Temperature Readings • Temperature is taken from sensors • Warning System • Alarm goes off when high heat or magnetism is found • Bluetooth interfacing • Transmits data wireless to the Bluetooth • Heat Map Generation • Takes temperature readings and plots them onto a heat map • May be overlayed on Google Maps
Advantages • Treads allow ease of movement through inclines and point turning • Hall Effect Sensor is a novel method to find heat sources produced by rocks through magnetism • Tightly, integrated system reduces cost and wasted space • Warns locals
Problems Encountered • GPS resolution is too large (2m) • Iterations of map • Gradient- streaks caused imperfections with readings • Line following- navigational logic conflicted • Boundaries- low amounts of error • Gas sensor • Not much sensitivity for gas • Would not be able to discern one gas from another
Conclusion • BinfordThermDetector 3000 allows for • Transversal of land • Wireless transmission of data for quick analysis • Heat map shows areas of high danger • Magnetism uses novel method to detect coal mine fires • Design process is never ending