Prof. Ghassan Aouad Presented by Dr. Angela Lee The Future of IT in the Construction Sector
The Future of IT in the Construction Sector • Review of existing practice & research • Review of key emerging technologies • Purpose: • ‘Paint a picture’ • Illustrate how IT could benefit • Create platform for discussion & improvement • Identify gaps in research & practice
Construction in the 80s • 2D CAD • Automated the task of drafting rather than the process 1 1 1 1 1 • 3D CAD • Internet & ‘project websites’
Sub-contractor Islands of Automation Architect Consultant Contractor Facilities Manager Client Construction Site
Sub-contractor The Document Approach Intranets/ Extranets/ Document Management Systems Architect Consultant Contractor Facilities Manager Client Construction Site
The Document Approach • Limitations: • Enabled instantaneous transmission of design information, but did not necessarily improve the quality • Information not necessarily co-ordinated • Did not address the information needs of the project team • Version control; data not interoperable – software application specific; re-write data
High level functional decomposition • Build object oriented models to support each identified function i.e. perspectives • Integrate the perspectives using a set of shared concepts
Sub-contractor The Model Approach Building Information Model Architect Consultant Contractor Facilities Manager Client Construction Site
Technology Process Technology & Process Technology, Process & People
Building Information Model • History • Started in 1970s • OXSYS CAD (Cambridge) • CEDAR and HARNESS (Hospital design) • Commercial Products (1980s) • RUCAPS (Really Usable Computer-Aided Production System) • CHEOPS • Personal Architect (Computervision) • GDS/BDS (McDonnell-Douglas) • ArchiCAD
Building Information Model • What is happening now • Autodesk's Vision • Bentley’s Technology • Graphisoft ‘s virtual building • What is BIM? • Single database contains information beyond drawings • Easy to share and co-ordinate • Synchronised shared data
Model based research at Salford OSCON SPACE OSCON 1994 1992 1996 2002 1999
Design Tool Project Db Resource Database Management Tool Whole Lifecycle Costing
nD modelling • An nD model is an extension of the building information model, which incorporates multi-aspects of design information required at each stage of the lifecycle of a building facility • nD modelling tools are a series of multi-disciplinary ICT-based building design and analysis applications that access an nD model through an interoperable data standard
nD modelling • Predict and plan the construction process • Determine cost options • Maximise sustainability • Investigate energy requirements • Examine people’s accessibility • Determine maintenance needs • Incorporate crime deterrent features • Examine the building’s acoustics …all at the same time
Accessibility Auditor Acoustics Engineer FM Consultant Etc Traditional D&C process • Over the brick-wall/ sequential approach • Leading to: - • Long lead-times • Rework and waste in the process
Others Sustainability Index Life Cycle Costing Index AccessibilityIndex What if analysis Time Index Economic Viability Index What-if analysis
IFC Model Server / Model Component (Developed by VTT) Building Information Model IFC Building Model Proprietary Building Model (ADT, ArchiCAD) Decision Support Model Analysis Knowledge Base Accessibility Analysis Security Analysis Maintainability Analysis Sustainability Analysis Others ……. nD Tool DevelopmentSystem Architecture
IFC Model-based nD Modelling Tool Showing simplified relations of the building components • IFC • Industry Foundation Classes • Building Model • Model-based rather than CAD-based • IFC Server Components • IFC ActiveX components VR building model Showing the attributes of each selected component Proposed model accessing section
Decision Making Techniques Paired Comparison Analysis Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to work out the importance of a number of options relative to each other. It is particularly useful where you do not have objective data to base this on. This makes it easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage. Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to set priorities where there are conflicting demands on your resources.
ANALYSIS VISUALISATION INTEGRATION COMMUNCIATION INTELLIGENCE AUTOMATION Finite Element 3D/solid modelling Real time data acquisition Distributed workspaces Control Financial Anal ysis 4D Data sharing Mobility Data acquisition Optimisation Simulation ND modelling Collaborative systems Wearable computing Inference Decision support Space Syntax Complex data sets Information standards Wireless technology Agents Networks VR systems I nformation management Broadband technologies Robotics Pollution Augmented reality Object models Environment GIS/GPS - product - process Acoustics Satellite image analysis Nano Technologies - Terrain modelling Ambient Technologies Design Systems Knowledge Management Infrastructure Systems Data mining Multi criteria analysis New user interfaces Urban modelling Artificial intelligence Future Construction Technologies
Virtual and Augmented reality • ‘A user interface that allows humans to visualise and interact with autonomous computer generated environments through human sensory channels in real-time’
Nano Technologies • Nanotechnology involves research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels in the dimension range of approximately 1-100 nanometers (10-9 m). • 100 nanometers: 1/100,000 of the diameter of a human hair • Nanotechnology does not only aim to make things small but also cheap.
Nano Technology in Construction • Materials • Environment • Site logistics • IT
Nano Technology in Construction Carbon nanotube Carbon nanotubes combine the characteristics of the two naturally occurring bulk forms of carbon, strength (diamond) and electrical conductivity (graphite). Furthermore, carbon nanotubes conduct electricity in only one spatial dimension, that is, along one axis, rather than in three dimensions, as is the case for graphite. Materials Probably the first big success Stronger, lighter more durable materials Concrete reduction and understanding of pore formation on nano to macro scales. Surface coatings Scratch and fire resistant coatings Self-cleaning coatings Corrosion protection coatings Performance monitoring sensors Incorporated within structures, engines and other components to provide better understanding of their condition and detect and report early signs of wear. A real life example. Self cleaning windows by Pilkington. The grime which ordinarily stick to the glass, giving it a dirty appearance, is broken down by a daylight activated reaction with the surface coating of titanium oxide. During rain fall, because the glass is hydrophilic, the water spreads across it, rather than forming droplets, taking the dirt away with it.
Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) • Technology used to identify items as they pass through a gated area. Typically this identification is used to alert someone of the unauthorized removal of items from a store, library, or data centre.
Real-time construction component tracking system • RFID first appeared in the 1980s • Wireless system, allows non-contact reading
Robotics in Construction • Mobile Bricklaying Robot
Summary • Focus on model driven not document driven • Emerging technologies • Improved communication through Visualisation • Simulation/ What if? Analysis • Data capture and identification
Distributed Design Design Drivers Supply Chain Toolkit SPICE Integrate to Innovate Briefing Trust Tacitus Process Protocol MOPMIT SPICE FM LCC nD Modelling