1. The Catholic Church had lost its focus on faith and was obsessed with power and money.
2. Church clergy (popes, priests, monks) routinely violated their sacred vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
3. Church would sell its positions (cardinal, bishop) to people for money (like buying a good job). • Church was dominated by Italian nobility who were disliked by the German and English nobles
4. Indulgences—documents you bought from the Church to cancel your sins. • Caused conflict in NorthernEurope
Why did the Reformation happen in the 1500s? • 1. Church conflicts decreased the power of the Church and decreased money in the Church. • 2. The popular philosophy of humanism emphasized rational questioning and individual worth.
3. The printing press made the Bible available to literate people. New versions in German, French, and English made it available to the common people. (vernacular) • Encouraged growth of literacy • Spreadideas of Renaissance & Reformation faster
4. King Henry VIII and English priests were jealous of Italian domination of the Church and hated that so much money went to Italy.
5. The Church forbid usury (interest on loans) and Christian merchants wanted to be able to loan money (so they could make more money). Only Jews (or Muslims) could loan money. • new wealth among merchants challenged the church ban on usury
The Protestant Reformation occurred when Catholics disagreed with the Catholic Church and tried to reform it and then broke from the Catholics to form a new Christian religion.
Leaders of the Protestant Reformation The Split from the Catholic Church
Before Luther • Jan Huss: priest and reformer. He was burned at the stake for heresy. This occurred 100 years before Luther. • John Wycliffe: teacher. He wanted reforms of the church based on the Bible and was critical of bad priests.
Martin Luther – Lutheran Tradition • German monk • nailed the 95 Thesesto the Church door • 1517 • salvation by faith alone
Bible is ultimate authority • All humans are equal before God • Birth of the Protestant Church
He started the “City of God” in Switzerland (Geneva) predestination Faith revealed by living a righteous life strict rules & work ethic Dancing Drinking Gambling John Calvin – Calvinist Tradition
King Henry VIII - Anglicanism • This British king started the Church of England so he could divorce his wife. • Took over the land and wealth of the Catholic Church in England • Dismissed Pope’s authority • Made himself head of Church of England
1. Catherine of Aragon Spanish princess —his brother’s widow Divorced Daughter Mary
2. Anne Boleyn Long “courtship” Accused of infidelity Beheaded Daughter Elizabeth
3. Jane Seymour Anne’s handmaid Died in childbirth Son Edward
4. Anne of Cleves Political marriage with German princess Divorced
5. Catherine Howard Young flirt Accused of infidelity Beheaded
6. Catherine Parr Widowed nurse Survived
King Edward VI Protestant King at 10 Died at 15
(Lady Jane Grey) Nine day queen Protestant puppet Removed by Mary
Queen Mary I Catholic Killed 300 Protestants “Bloody Mary”
Queen Elizabeth I & Her Achievements • Protestant • Established Church of England (Anglican) as official church • Unified country • Tolerated dissenters (people who disagree) • Expanded English territories with colonies overseas
Spanish Armada • Spain sent HUGE navy to invade England • Wanted to make England Catholic again • Elizabeth’s navy defeated the Armada in 1588 (a massive storm helped) • Spain’s never recovers from the EPIC FAIL