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Chapter 12

Chapter 12. American Pageant M. Carter. War Fronts. WEST & CANADA Americans fought poorly Army was poorly trained Largely unsuccessful In Canada- attempted to fight on 3 fronts at once- poor strategy. War Fronts. At Sea Most able and well-prepared “Old Iron-sides”. “Old Ironsides”.

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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 American Pageant M. Carter

  2. War Fronts • WEST & CANADA • Americans fought poorly • Army was poorly trained • Largely unsuccessful • In Canada- attempted to fight on 3 fronts at once- poor strategy

  3. War Fronts • At Sea • Most able and well-prepared • “Old Iron-sides”

  4. “Old Ironsides”

  5. Oliver Wendell Holmes Ay, tear her tattered ensign down! Long has it waved on high, And many an eye has danced to see That banner in the sky; Beneath it rung the battle shout, And burst the cannon’s roar; — The meteor of the ocean air Shall sweep the clouds no more. Her deck, once red with heroes’ blood, Where knelt the vanquished foe, When winds were hurrying o’er the flood, And waves were white below, No more shall feel the victor’s tread, Or know the conquered knee; — The harpies of the shore shall pluck The eagle of the sea! Oh, better that her shattered hulk Should sink beneath the wave; Her thunders shook the mighty deep, And there should be her grave; Nail to the mast her holy flag, Set every threadbare sail, And give her to the god of storms, The lightning and the gale!

  6. Napoleon Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo British attention was no longer divided- all attention on the US Best troops began arriving in North America

  7. Washington DC British sailed up the Chesapeake to attack the Capitol White House and Capitol burned Dolly Madison saved Washington’s portrait

  8. Baltimore British unable to take Baltimore Battle at Fort McHenry “Star Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key

  9. Battle of New Orleans Andrew Jackson War Hero & Indian fighter Battle occurred two weeks after the treaty was signed- word had not reached them yet Defeated the British

  10. Treaty of Ghent Signed in Belgium 1814 Stalemate- “Not one Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost.”

  11. Hartford Convention • New England Federalists • Mass, Conn, RI, NH, Vt • List of grievances and demands: • 2/3 Congress required to- • Amend the Constitution • Place a new embargo • Admit new states

  12. Wanted to eliminate the 3/5 compromise because it gave the South an unfair advantage • Only allow a single term presidency • Prevent the continuation of the “Virginia Dynasty” by disallowing more than one president from a single state in consecutive years • Repayment for lost and damaged goods (government would pay)- because of embargo and impressment and war • The most radical members called for secession from the United States

  13. The delegation arrived in DC at the same time as the news of the Treaty of Ghent and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans. New England appeared traitorous and petty. Nearly tried for treason.

  14. Impact of the War of 1812 Willing to fight to defend its freedom Our diplomats were treated with more respect when abroad Less sectionalism Creation of war heroes- Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison Stronger manufacturing industries Less dependence on European imports

  15. Increased nationalism • American literature • National Capitol • National Anthem • Expanded army and navy • New charter for the Bank of the United States

  16. Rush-Bagot Treaty Between Britain and the US Limited naval power on the Great Lakes

  17. The “American System” • Henry Clay • 3 Parts • Banking- expansion of credit • Protective Tariff- expand manufacturing • Internal Improvements (transportation networks)- important for trade and to connect the East to the West

  18. Tariff of 1816 Protective Tariff Stimulate the national economy Protect manufacturers

  19. Internal Improvements • Madison vetoed all attempts to gain federal funding for these projects • Stated this was not an enumerated power, thus unconstitutional- fell within the realm of states’ rights • States began building roads and canals • Private individuals began raising and contributing funds for internal improvements • Erie Canal and Cumberland Road

  20. Era of Good Feelings Presidency of James Monroe Took a Goodwill Tour of the Nation Mostly a ONE-Party system Nationalism prevailed Little sectionalism Economy good (in the beginning)

  21. Panic of 1819 Economic Panic Depression, deflation, bankruptcies, bank failure, unemployment, soup kitchens, overcrowded debtors’ prison Brought about by the overspeculation of western land “wildcat” (western) banks gave loans for the speculation Led to foreclosure on farm mortgages

  22. Addition of new states • Addition of new western states • Admitted alternate free and slave states to maintain the sectional balance

  23. Why were people moving West? The unknown- mystery Chance for a better life (“land of promise”) Cheap land Land exhaustion in the east Indians under control New roads connecting East and West New immigrants Land Act of 1820- cheaper land

  24. Tallmadge Amendment NO more slaves allowed in Missouri Gradual emancipation of children born to slavery UNPOPULAR Southern slave owners- feared total emancipation Westerners- wanted unrestricted movement to increase population = new statehood

  25. Missouri Compromise 1820 Agreement brokered by Henry Clay- the “Great Compromiser” Missouri enters as a SLAVE state Maine enters as a FREE state Balance of power is maintained Line set at 36, 30 for future- above = FREE, below = SLAVE

  26. McCulloch v. Maryland Marshall Court MD taxing Bank of the US Decision: Taxing bank = preventing them from operating efficiently Declaration of Bank as Constitutional Supported loose constructionism and concept of “implied powers” Continued to strengthen the federal government

  27. Cohens v. Virginia Marshall Court Decision: Right of the federal court to oversee the decisions of the state courts Loss of state rights

  28. Gibbons v. Ogden Marshall Court Decision: interstate travel and commerce a federal issue, not a state issue NY/NJ steamboat case Interstate cases continue to be federal

  29. Dartmouth College v. Woodward Marshall Court NH tried to change the college’s original charter Decision: a charter is a contract and it has to be upheld since it is legally binding. Protected businesses against state encroachments and interference Unintended effects: corporations with charters escape necessary public controls and oversight

  30. Boundaries & Territories 49th Parallel- Boundary line set between the United States and the British- Canada in the West (above the Louisiana Purchase) Oregon Territory- shared between the US and the British Adams-Onis Treaty- between the US & Spain in 1819 that set the boundary between the two nations. Also handed Florida over to the US. (Following Jackson’s invasion of Florida)

  31. Monroe Doctrine (1823) Any intervention in affairs of the western hemisphere would be seen as an act of aggression toward the US Included colonization of South American nations. Big talk for such a weak nation- could we back it up???? We wouldn’t interfere in their hemisphere, they couldn’t interfere in ours.

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