Neoliberalism Critique of Political Economy
Political Economy • Political Economy: study of the production, distribution, consumption, and management of goods and services. • Capitalism: Trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit • Socialism: Equal distribution of wealth, elimination of private property, nationalization of trade and industry. • Communism: Elimination social classes.
Neoliberalism David Harvey – A Brief History of Neoliberalism “Neoliberalism is in the ﬁrst instance a theory of political economic practices that proposes that human well-being can best be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterized by strong private property rights, free markets, and free trade. The role of the state is to create and preserve an institutional framework appropriate to such practices. The state has to guarantee, for example, the quality and integrity of money. It must also set up those military, defence, police, and legal structures and functions required to secure private property rights and to guarantee, by force if need be, the proper functioning of markets. Furthermore, if markets do not exist (in areas such as land, water, education, health care, social security, or environmental pollution) then they must be created, by state action if necessary. But beyond these tasks the state should not venture .”
Adam Smith • 1723-1790 • Father of Modern Economics • Scottish philosopher, economist, teacher • Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) • The Wealth of Nations (1776)
Natural Laws of Economics • 1. Law of Self-Interest: Individual motivation is the result of an inherent human desire to increase personal satisfaction • 2. Law of Competition: Markets are inherently guided by challenges between actors • 3. Law of Supply and Demand: Value of goods will be naturally established in the market according to the balance of the quantity of a good available and public desire for such a good
Laissez-Faire Capitalism • “Free Market” – exchange of goods and services is a social realm, not governmental. Opposition to trade restrictions, worker rights laws, and product regulation because economic growth . • “Invisible Hand” – natural forces guide free market and capitalism through competition for scarce resources and is the optimal means for economic growth. • “Division of Labor” – specialization of the labor force is essential to maximize economic growth in capitalist economy.
Karl Marx • 1818-1883 • Father of Critical Political Economy • German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, activist • The Communist Manifesto (1848) • Das Kapital(1867)
Materialism "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." • Dialectical Materialism • Historical Materialism
Social Classes • Bourgeoisie: owners of the means of production • Proletariat: wage laborers
Exploitation • Labor Theory of Value -Use Value -Exchange Value -Surplus Value
Hegemonic Ideology • Ideology: concepts, and premises which provide the frameworks through which we represent, interpret, understand, and ‘make sense’ of some aspect of social existence (Hall, 1981, p. 81). • Hegemony: method for gaining and maintaining power that utilizes subtle coercion, rather than overt force, to consolidate authority (Lull, 1995). • False Consciousness: capitalistic bourgeoisie controlled the means of mental production including mass media and the arts.
Links v. Resolution • “USFG should” - State Link - Eurocentrism Link • “Economic Engagement” - Political Economy Link - Alterglobalization Link
Links v. Mechanisms • Govt-Govt • NGOs • Academic Exchange • Foreign Aid • Loans • Trade Agreements • Business Standards • Intellectual Property • Visas • Conditional/Unconditional
Links v. Advantage • Economy • Environment • Energy • US Leadership • Stability • Terrorism • Technology • Agriculture • Health Care • Democracy • Free Trade
Links v. Critical Teams • Materialism v. Discourse • -Structural oppression and structural opposition • -Pedagogy of Pleasure • Universal v. Particular • -Universalism • -Root cause • -Consumerism and Marketplace of Lifestyles
Impacts 1. Environmental Overshoot 2. War -Resource Wars -Competitive War 3. Structural Violence -Poverty -Invisibility
Alternative 1. Critique -Thinking Key -Temporal Emergency Link 2. Social Movements -Globalization from Below -Multitude -Labor Movements 3. Historical Materialism
Collapse Inevitable • Contradictions of Capitalism • Environment • Social Exploitation • No New Markets • AT: Cap Good • AT: No Alt • Risk of a link
Framework -Fairness: Capitalism is inherently unfair and debate is inherently constrained by political economic factors. -Education: Constraining debate to a neoliberal training ground is unethical and part of the structural problems already outlined. AT: Impact- Agnostic about the truth claims and descriptions of threats of the aff advantages. AT: Solvency- Skeptical about the efficacy of the market solutions of the aff solvency.
Answers to Answers • AT: Permutation • Cooptation • Inertial System • AT: Cap Inevitable • Self-Fulfilling prophecy • AT: Transition Wars • Capital constraints – can’t kill the workers! • Mindset shift • Breakin’ eggs to make an omelet
Link Answers • No link • Yes link, but maybe not *that* link • Permutation • Liberal Reformism • Pragmatism • Classic Double Bind • A. Residual links will be solved by the permutation’s encorporation of alternative • B. Alternative cant overcome the status quo neoliberal trends
Alternative Answers • No Alt: Best of the worst is still the best. • Cap Inevitable: • Biological • Social • Transition Wars: • Haters gonna hate • Takes out solvency
Impact Answers • Capitalism Good • Environment • Tragedy of Commons • Technological Advances • Space • Incentive to invest (also think ag, health care, etc) • Capitalism isn’t the reason ‘stroids are coming • War • Economic integration and self-interest • Tantrums • Freedom
Impact Answers • Protect Your Neck • 1. Defense of methodology • Economic Rationality Good • Predictions Good • 2. AT: Root Cause – proximate causes social, religious, nationalism