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Splash Screen

Splash Screen

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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Introduction Section 1:World Population Section 2:Global Cultures Section 3:Political and Economical Systems Section 4:Resources, Trade, and the Environment Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. A study of the human world—population, culture, political and economic systems, and resources—will help you understand events in the world around you. Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1:World Population The characteristics and distribution of human populations affect physical and human systems.Population growth and distribution influence where people live and how they change the natural environment. Chapter Intro 2

  5. Section 2:Global Cultures The characteristics and distribution of cultures influence human systems.The spatial interaction of cultures can spread new ideas, establish trading relationships, cause wars, and build political partnerships. Chapter Intro 3

  6. Section 3:Political and Economic Systems Cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth’s surface. Political and economic systems provide the organization and power for groups of people to control Earth’s surface. Chapter Intro 4

  7. Section 4:Resources, Trade, and the Environment Changes occur in the use, distribution, and importance of natural resources. People are dependent on the world’s natural resources for survival, but certain economic activities can threaten humans’ future access to these resources. Chapter Intro 5

  8. Chapter Preview-End

  9. World Population Population growth and distribution influence where people live and how they change the natural environment. Section 1-GTR

  10. World Population • death rate • doubling time • population distribution • population density • birthrate • natural increase • migration • demographic transition Section 1-GTR

  11. World Population • trend • community • negative Section 1-GTR

  12. World Population A. Hungary B. Germany C. Canada D. Bangladesh E. Mexico City Section 1-GTR

  13. A B C World Population Which continent contains most of the world’s people? A.Europe B.Asia C.Africa Section 1

  14. Population Growth Population growth varies from country to country and is influenced by cultural ideas, migration, and level of development. • Nearly 6.5 billion people now live on Earth, inhabiting about 30 percent of the planet’s land. • Global population is growing rapidly and is expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050. Section 1

  15. Population Growth (cont.) • The Demographic Transition • The demographic transition model uses birthrates and death rates to show changes in the population trends of a country or region. • Most of the industrialized and technologically developed countries have reached zero population growth, in which the birthrate and death rate are equal. The Demographic Transition Model Section 1

  16. Population Growth (cont.) • Rapid population growth presents many challenges to the global community: • difficulty producing enough food to feed everyone • a shortage of resources • an uneven distribution of age Section 1

  17. Population Growth (cont.) • Countries, such as Hungary and Germany, have experienced negative population growth, in which the annual death rate exceeds the annual birthrate. Section 1

  18. A B C D Which of the following will help with problems due to rapid population growth? A.Fertilizers B.Irrigation systems C.New varieties of crops D.All of the above Section 1

  19. Population Distribution World population distribution is uneven and isinfluenced by migration and the Earth’s physical geography. • Almost everyone on Earth lives on a little less than one-third of the planet’s land. Section 1

  20. Population Distribution (cont.) • Population Density • To determine population density in a country, geographers divide the total population of the country by its total land area. • This does not account for uneven population distribution. World Population Density Section 1

  21. Population Distribution (cont.) • Population Movement • Many people are moving to urban areas. • The primary cause of urbanization is the desire of rural people to find jobs and a better life in more prosperous urban areas. • Population movement also occurs between countries. Urban Growth in Selected Cities Section 1

  22. A B C D Which country has one of the highest population densities in the world? A.Bangladesh B.Canada C.Sweden D.China Section 1

  23. Section 1-End

  24. Global Cultures The spatial interaction of cultures can spread new ideas, establish trading relationships, cause wars, and build political partnerships. Section 2-GTR

  25. Global Cultures • culture • cultural diffusion • culture hearth • language family • ethnic group • culture region • similar • major Section 2-GTR

  26. Global Cultures A. Egypt B. Iraq C. Pakistan D. China E. Mexico Section 2-GTR

  27. A B C Global Cultures When studying a culture, what areas are looked at? A.Language and religion B.Daily life, history, and art C.All of the above Section 2

  28. Elements of Culture Geographers divide the Earth into culture regions, which are defined by the presence of common elements such as language and religion. • A particular culture can be understood by looking at the following elements: • Language • Religion World Language Families Section 2

  29. Elements of Culture (cont.) • Social Groups • Government and Economy • Culture Regions World Culture Regions Section 2

  30. A B C Groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria fall under which term? A.Social group B.Social class C.Ethnic group Section 2

  31. Cultural Change Internal and external forces change cultures over time. • The Agricultural Revolution • The shift from hunting and gathering food to producing food is known as the Agricultural Revolution. • Some of the farming villages evolved into civilizations. Section 2

  32. Cultural Change (cont.) • The world’s first civilizations arose in culture hearths. • The most influential culture hearths developed in areas that make up the modern countries of: • Egypt • Iraq • Pakistan • China • Mexico World Culture Hearths Section 2

  33. Cultural Change (cont.) • They have certain geographic features in common: • Mild climate • Fertile land • Located near a major river or source of water Section 2

  34. Cultural Change (cont.) • Cultural contact among different civilizations promoted cultural change as ideas and practices spread through trade and travel. Section 2

  35. Cultural Change (cont.) • Industrial and Information Revolutions • In the late 1700s and 1800s some countries experienced the Industrial Revolution, which led to social changes. • At the end of the 1900s, the information revolution opened doors for experiencing new cultures. Section 2

  36. A B C D Which of the following “set the stage for the rise of cities and civilizations”? A.Nomadic hunting B.Housing C.Surplus food D.Military power Section 2

  37. Section 2-End

  38. Political and Economical Systems Political and economic systems provide the organization and power for groups of people to control Earth’s surface. Section 3-GTR

  39. Political and Economical Systems • unitary system • democracy • traditional economy • market economy • mixed economy • command economy • federal system • autocracy • monarchy • oligarchy Section 3-GTR

  40. Political and Economical Systems • unique • authority • assembly Section 3-GTR

  41. Political and Economical Systems A. United States B. Saudi Arabia C. United Kingdom D. China E. Vietnam Section 3-GTR

  42. A B C Political and Economic Systems An oligarchy is a government ruled by what? A. A few individuals B.A single individual C.Many individuals Section 3

  43. Features of Government Territory, population, and sovereignty influence levels and types of governments in countries around the world. • Levels of government • Most countries have several levels of government, ranging from the national level to the village level. Section 3

  44. Features of Government (cont.) • Two types of government systems are: • Unitary—the United Kingdom and France use this system. • Federal—the United States, Canada and Switzerland are three of many countries that use this system. Section 3

  45. Features of Government (cont.) • All governments belong to one of three major groups: • Autocracy—rule by one person • A monarchy is another form of autocratic government. • Oligarchy—rule by a few people • Democracy—rule by many people Section 3

  46. A B C Which form of government do you feel works best and why? A.Autocracy B.Oligarchy C.Democracy Section 3

  47. Economic Systems The three major economic systems are traditional economy, market economy, and command economy. • All economic systems must make three basic economic decisions: • What and how many goods and services should be produced Section 3

  48. Economic Systems (cont.) • How should they be produced • Who gets the goods and services that are produced • These decisions are made differently in the three major economic systems: • Traditional—habit and custom determine the rules. • Market—this economy is based on free enterprise, the idea that private individuals or groups have the right to own property or businesses and make a profit with only limited government interference. Section 3

  49. Economic Systems (cont.) • Most market economies are actually mixed economies. • Command—the government controls the economy is this system. Section 3

  50. Economic Systems (cont.) • Two types of command economies: • Communist—strict government control of the entire society • Socialist—three main goals of this type of economy: • An equitable distribution of wealth and economic opportunity • Society’s control, through its government, makes decisions about public goods. • Public ownership of services and factories that are essential. Section 3