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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Characteristics of Psychological Tests Section 2:Intelligence Testing Section 3:Measuring Achievement, Abilities, and Interests Section 4:Personality Testing Chapter Menu

  3. Chapter Objectives · Section 1 Characteristics of Psychological Tests Examine the characteristics that make a psychological test useful: reliability, validity, and standardization. Chapter Preview 1

  4. Chapter Objectives · Section 2 Intelligence Testing Explore the ways in which IQ tests are used to measure intelligence and explain the various theories of what constitutes intelligence. Chapter Preview 2

  5. Chapter Objectives · Section 3 Measuring Achievement, Abilities, and Interests Describe the various test psychologists have developed to assess special abilities and experiences. Chapter Preview 3

  6. Chapter Objectives · Section 4 Personality Testing Explain how personality tests are used to assess personality characteristics and identify problems. Chapter Preview 4

  7. Chapter Preview-End

  8. Main Idea To be useful, tests have to be standardized and exhibit reliability and validity. Section 1-Main Idea

  9. Vocabulary • reliability • validity • percentile system • norms Section 1-Key Terms

  10. Objectives • Identify three ways of measuring reliability. • Explain test standardization and how test validity is assessed. Section 1-Objectives

  11. A B C D What does the fairness and usefulness of a test depend on? A.Reliability B.Validity C.Standardization D.All of the above Section 1-Polling Question

  12. Characteristics of Psychological Tests • A test can: • Predict how well a person might do in a career. • Assess an individual’s desires, interests, and attitudes. • Reveal psychological problems. Section 1

  13. Characteristics of Psychological Tests (cont.) • A standardized test can: • Provide comparable data about many individuals. • Show how an individual compares to others. • Help psychologists help people understand things about themselves more clearly. Section 1

  14. Characteristics of Psychological Tests (cont.) • The fairness and usefulness of a test depend on reliability, validity, and standardization. Section 1

  15. A B C D Which is NOT a way of determining a test’s reliability? A.Test-retest B.Scorer C.Split-half D.Time-retime Section 1

  16. Test Reliability • Reliability refers to the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions. • Three ways of determining a test’s reliability: • Test-retest reliability • Interscorer (and scorer) reliability • Split-half reliability Judging Reliability Section 1

  17. A B C If every other student in a class receives a different test on the same subject matter, is this reliable? A.Yes B.No C.It depends on the results. Section 1

  18. Test Validity • Validity is the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure. • One of the chief methods for measuring validity is to find out its predictive validity—how well a test predicts performance. Judging Validity Section 1

  19. Test Validity (cont.) • Nothing can be said about a test’s validity unless the purpose of the test is absolutely clear. Section 1

  20. A B C D What is the chief method for measuring validity? A.Predictive validity B.Relevance C.Precision D.Accuracy Section 1

  21. Standardization • Standardization refers to two things: • Standardized tests must be administered and scored the same way every time. • Standardization refers to establishing the norm, or average score, made by a large group of people. Section 1

  22. Standardization (cont.) • Percentile system • Norms • Norms are not really standards; they only refer what has been found to be average for a particular group. Establishing Percentiles Section 1

  23. Standardization (cont.) • When you take a test and obtain your score, you should consider these questions: • Do you think that if you took the same test again, you would receive a similar score? • Does your performance on this test reflect your usual performance in the subject? • If you were to compare your score with those of your classmates, would it reflect your general standing within that group? Section 1

  24. A B C D What are the two things standardization refers to? A.Consistency and character B.Consistency and establishing norms C.Character and fairness D.None of the above Section 1

  25. Section 1-End

  26. Main Idea Several IQ tests are used to measure intelligence, although there are many views about what constitutes intelligence. Section 2-Main Idea

  27. Vocabulary • Intelligence • two-factor theory • triarchic theory • emotional intelligence • intelligence quotient (IQ) • heritability • cultural bias Section 2-Key Terms

  28. Objectives • Explain the various views of intelligence. • Identify two kinds of IQ tests. Section 2-Objectives

  29. A B C Do you think IQ tests are good indication of intelligence? A.Yes B.No C.Not sure Section 2-Polling Question

  30. Views of Intelligence • Intelligence • Two-factor theoryof intelligence—a person’s intelligence is composed of a general ability level and specific mental abilities. Section 2

  31. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Thurstone’s theory of intelligence—intelligence is composed of seven primary mental abilities: • Word fluency • Memory • Inductive reasoning • Verbal comprehension • Numerical ability • Spatial relations • Perceptual speed Thurstone’s SevenPrimary Mental Abilities Section 2

  32. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: • Verbal ability • Logical-mathematical reasoning skills • Spatial ability • Musical ability • Body-kinesthetic ability • Interpersonal skills • Intrapersonal skills • Naturalist intelligence • Experience of existence Section 2

  33. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Gardner argues that the biological organization of the brain affects one’s strength in each of the eight areas. • His critics claim that some of the capacities are really just skills. Gardner’s MultipleIntelligences Howard Gardner Section 2

  34. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Sternberg’s Theory of Intelligence—the triarchic theory—a person’s intelligence involves analytical, creative, and practical thinking skills. • Emotional Intelligence Section 2

  35. Views of Intelligence (cont.) • Four major aspects of emotional intelligence: • The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and appropriately. • The ability to use emotions while thinking. • The ability to understand emotions and use the knowledge effectively. • The ability to regulate one’s emotions to promote personal growth. Section 2

  36. A B C D According to Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, being skilled at distinguishing differences among large numbers of similar objects falls under which label? A.Linguistic B.Spatial C.Interpersonal D.Naturalist Section 2

  37. The Development of Intelligence Tests • The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale groups test items by age level. • The IQ, or intelligence quotient (IQ), is a standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average. Typical Items on theStanford-Binet Test Section 2

  38. The Development of Intelligence Tests (cont.) • The Otis-Lennon Ability Test is often used today—this test seeks to measure the cognitive abilities that are related to a student’s ability to learn and succeed in school. Section 2

  39. The Development of Intelligence Tests (cont.) • The Wechsler Tests—These tests yield percentile scores in separate areas, such as vocabulary and arithmetic, which provide a more detailed picture of the individual’s strengths and weaknesses. Sample Items on theWechsler Tests Section 2

  40. A B C D Which test seeks to measure the cognitive abilities that are related to a student’s ability to learn and succeed in school? A.Stanford-Binet B.Wechsler C.Otis-Lennon D.None of the above Section 2

  41. The Uses and Meaning of IQ Scores • IQ tests seem to be most useful when related to school achievement. • They are accurate in predicting which people will do well in schools, colleges, and universities. • However, critics wonder whether such tests actually measure intelligence. Distribution of IQScores Section 2

  42. A B C D What percentage of people score between 70 and 130 on IQ tests? A.50 B.75 C.85 D.95 Section 2

  43. Controversy Over IQ Testing • The main question— • Do genetic differences or environmental inequalities cause two people to receive different scores on intelligence tests? Section 2

  44. Controversy Over IQ Testing(cont.) • Researchers test people with varying degrees of genetic relationships to help answer this question. • They have found a high degree of heritability • As genetic relationship increases, the similarity of IQ also increases. Section 2

  45. Controversy Over IQ Testing(cont.) • Factors such as the richness of the home environment, the quality of food, and the number of brothers and sister in the family also affect IQ. • So, research has proven that both heredity and environment have an impact on intelligence. Section 2

  46. Controversy Over IQ Testing(cont.) • A major criticism of intelligence tests is that they have a cultural bias. The Dove CounterbalanceIntelligence Test Section 2

  47. A B Which do you think plays a greater factor in a person’s IQ, genetics or environmental factors? A.Genetics B.Environmental factors Section 2

  48. Section 2-End

  49. Main Idea Psychologists have developed tests to assess special abilities and experiences. Section 3-Main Idea

  50. Vocabulary • aptitude test • achievement test • interest inventory Section 3-Key Terms