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Reasons for

Reasons for

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Reasons for

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  1. CCP’s Victory Reasons for AND KMT’s Defeat

  2. Leadership The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1) The CCP’s leadership was excellent at all levels • Faithful Supporters of Mao Zedong from the Long March(1934-35) • Strong spirit of brotherhood and unity • Cooperated effectively in Military actions 2) CCP chose their followers on merit (real ability) 3) In the battlefield, the CCP generals had a wide scope of powers to make the most suitable decision

  3. Leadership The Kuo Ming Tang (KMT) 1) KMT generals were corrupt and divided • Personal rivalries made cooperation against the CCP impossible. 2) Chiang Kai-shek only chose his men only for their personal loyalty to him • Lead to many generals to be inefficient and cowardly 3) Generals had to wait for Chiang’s orders before action could be taken • Delayed military action and many errors do his ignorance for military advise.

  4. Leadership 4) Chiang was highly suspicious of his followers • Really able and experienced commanders were distrusted • Often recalled and replace commanders of his army 5) Corruption was widespread within the KMT leadership • Some generals even stole and sold government properties to the CCP

  5. Strategy CCP • The CCP’s military strategy was successful • It was fast, moving guerrilla warfare and was modern and revolutionary • Efforts of destruction were focused on the central and most efficient troops led by Chiang Kai-Shek • Divided the enemy units before destroying them one by one at KMT’s weakest points through surprise attacks

  6. Strategy KMT • The KMT was greedy for territories • Chiang Kai-Shek did not seem to follow any long-term plan • Tried to blindly occupy the largest expanse of Chinese territories, not focusing on the strength of the CCP • Lead to KMT troops spread thinly along communication lines and in the cities • Allowed communists to move freely about in the countryside

  7. Strategy KMT • Also lacked experience unlike the CCP (from the 2nd Sino Japanese War) • Chiang ignorant of his American advisers and made many serious mistakes • The KMT’s Secrecy about its strategic plans were also not well kept

  8. Morale CCP • The soldiers fought bravely • Filled with a sense of mission : The unavoidable final victory of communism • Shared a common revolutionary experience and have a common ideal to fight (and die) for • Also, most troops were recruited from the north – in this way they fought to defend what they regarded as their homeland (patriotism) • High Morale

  9. KMT Govt. Morale KMT • Soldiers were badly paid and fed • Training and discipline were poor • Soldiers found it meaningless to fight, especially with harsh treatment from the KMT government • Unfamiliar surrounding of North China • Morale was low Resulted in • Large number of KMT soldiers going over to the CCP’s side – support gained via re-education

  10. Social Factors - Peasants CCP • Broad support from the peasants • Treated the peasants in captured areas well like their own family • Many peasants volunteered to join the Communist troops KMT • Lack of social support • Neglected welfare of peasants and treated them badly • Unfair conscription – Only peasants and faced harsh conditions in the army • More died of starving • Lack of training further increased their casualties

  11. Social Factors – Other Social Classes • The KMT depended heavily on the middle class, gentry landlords and city merchants for support • Serious inflation and KMT corruption led to the KMT being abandoned. KMT

  12. Political Factors • The CCP succeeded in building up a reputation of an honest government during the 8-year war with Japan and after it • However, the KMT government had lost much of the people’s confidence as it did not fulfill a government’s responsibility