Robots for Urban Search and Rescue Game-Based Design of Human-Robot Interfaces for USR CHI2004
Robotic Search and Rescue • At least 3 used to search the rubble of the World Trade Center • Not very sophisticated bots
Other robotic work • Life-threatening work, like mine-clearing • De-mining resulted in at least 500 deaths from 1996 to 2002, according to a database maintained by the Journal of Mine Action.
RoboCupRescue • Simulation Project, Robotics and Infrastructure Project, Simulation League and Robot League • Integration of these activities creates digitally-empowered international rescue brigades in the future.
Inspirational Interface • First Person Shooters • Besides point and click fragging, players can … • quickly assess the environment • make time-critical decisions • control low-level decisions This maps very closely with the requirements and goals of Urban Search and Rescue
brothers? cousins? • Searching a maze or building for enemies • Vs. • Using a robot to explore an arena and find victims
HRI • Human-Robot Interface awareness • Human side: location, activities, status, and surroundings of the robot • Robot side: human commands it will receive, and physics it operates under
awarenesses II • From the FPS user interface, we derive the ideas of … • Surroundings awareness • Status awareness
The robot design • Magellan Pro robot • 450 MHz PIII • 16 sensor panels • Pan-tilt-zoom camara • Wireless microphone
Interface incorporation • Most control via keyboard • No “mouselook” due to hardware limitations • WASD for robot direction • UHJK for vision
Victim interest point • Dialog window for entering victim data • Saved time - didn’t have to fill out paper form • Additions: • Creates on the fly webpage of victim data
Hip Info • Dynamically created webpage could be sent to rescue workers equipped with PDAs • Instant access to … • victim's status • image of the victim • surrounding area • a map to the victim
End Game • Results: • Keyboard design idea good and quick, but with a high learning curve • Large rotational movements had bad effects • Short-changed surroundings awareness
The Future • Harder Competitions • More real-life problems, like communication blackouts • With more autonomy comes … more robots searching! • Redundancy • Faster search • Another point of view design needed
RTS UI requirements • Accurate mapping and localization • Autonomous navigation and searching • Sharing of information amongst robots • Ability to identify relevant visual features
Game Over (Groan) Credits: Maxwell, Ward, Heckel, Game-Based Design of Human-Robot Interfaces for Urban Search and Rescue Nat’l Geographic Today news article (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/09/0914_TVdisasterrobot .html) Blizzard Entertainment (Starcraft) Microsoft Games (Halo) RoboCupRescue - http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/RoboCup2003/background.htm PCWorld.com – mine robots news (http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,110127,00.asp)