Social Darwinism theory developed by philosopher Herbert Spencer from Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution argued that society progresses through competition, with the fitting rising to positions of wealth and power
Social Darwinism II • the “fittest” individuals, businesses, or nations should and would rise to positions of wealth and power • the “unfit” would fail • social Darwinists believed that any attempts to help the poor or less capable actually slowed social progress • some religious leaders believed being one of the “fittest” was a sign of Christian virtue
Connection • social Darwinism and social class both have the word “social” • in society it is “better” to be richer or fitter than poorer or less fit
Vertical Integration Definition: When firms bought up everything from the production process. Anything from raw materials to transportation and distribution. Abby Blank
Concept • Vertical Integration is still used to this day because it is more efficient and is cheap. • Andrew Carnegie’s true success came from vertical integration because he realized that if he purchased supplies in bulk and producing goods in large quantities he could lower production costs and increase his profits. • For example he purchased iron and coal mines, which were the raw materials necessary to run his steam mills. He also bought steamship lines and railroads to transport these materials. • Because he controlled businesses at each stage of production he could sell steal at a much lower price then his competitors.
Connection A distributing meat company had discovered that the leftover meat from the cows could make glue. So the owner opened up a glue company and this saved money, and made production more efficient.
Arrangement grouping several companies under a single board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production Exclusive economic control of an industry TRUST
MONOPOLY • Taking control of a large industry and running it as a business to make money • Trying to buy as much properties as you can such as land, buildings and even industry's to make a profit
TRUST • Taking many different companies under one principal • Placing the companies under one director would sometimes make more money because the competition decresed
CONNECTION • In the loved bored game Monopoly, the object is to take control of all the properties and earn the most money • A monopoly in real life is economic control of an industry
CONNECTION • The popular brand NIKE owns the popular company JORDAN • Trust is the act of one principal (NIKE) taking other companies (JORDAN) under their wing
A pioneer of communications technology; made telegraph that had the ability to send four messages at the same time Thomas Alva Edison
Edison was a very innovative man, especially with communication technology. He developed a newer telegraph model that had the ability to send four simultaneous messages. Later on, he even invented and patented a telegraphic stock ticker. Overall, Thomas Alva Edison made a crucial contribution to the Industrial Revolution. Explanation
Thomas Alva Edison invented a telegraph. Both started with the letter t. Connection
Telegraph One of the most significant advances in communication in the 1800’s developed Samuel F.B Morse.
Telegraph This device made an impact on the way people communicated with others. Morse’s dot-and-dash code could send an operator a business order to go to a close destination in minutes. The telegraph would send information for businesses, the government, newspapers, and to private citizens. The leading telegraph company was Western Union, which had more than 2,000 telegraph offices. The railroad had increased along with the telegraph, a main reason was because telegraph companies were put in every train stations.
Connections This connects to talking on a phone. You “tele” person with a telegraph.
TranscontinentalRailroad A project to connect the east and west by railroads. The union pacific and central pacific met in the middle to complete this.
After the Bessemer process, there was a significant growth in railroad expansion. Railroads used to be used only for local transportation. Over a short period of time there was a great expansion and it made life easier. The first transcontinental railroad was finished in 1869. the union and central pacific railroads joined to make a single line from Nebraska to the Pacific Ocean.
Trans means to go across and you are going across the USA from one end to the other.
Patents- Exclusive right to manufacture or sell inventions
Patents- A patent gives you the excusive right to use, make, or sell an invention. Elijah McCoy received a patent for his invention to protect his rights. Today most inventors and business owners get patents so that others cannot take their ideas.
Patents On Shark Tank many inventors patent their inventions so that their ideas aren’t stolen.
Bessemer Process: Efficient method of making steal developed by British inventor Henry Bessemer and American inventor William Kelly
In my mind the Bessemer process is a process of steelmaking that burned of the impurities in iron with hot air. The Bessemer process also could produce as much steel in a day than old ways used to produce in a week. This process definitely effected the steel industry and the industrial revolution.
Communism- political theory that proposes that all people should collectively own property and the means of production and that individual ownership should not be allowed
Communism is a political way of thinking in which everyone is equal in every possible way. There’s no ‘private property’ and this concept would be called ‘common ownership’. In addition to this, there wouldn’t be any classes or states, resulting in a completely equal (or utopian, which was meant to be another result of communism) society.
Homestead Riot In 1892 at Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Works in Homestead Pa, workers went on a strike to protest wage cuts. The managers responded by a lock out and hired 300 guards to protect the plant. A crash between the strikers and guards led to 16 deaths.
Homestead Riot The workers were mad about wage cuts, so they went on a strike. The managers of the steel works had made a lock out and hired 300 guards to protect the steel works. Between the workers and guards there was violence, which happened to kill 16 people. This all happened in Homestead, Pennsylvania at Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Works. This is also called the Homestead Strike.
Homestead Riot A way to remember this is that is happened at a steel works in Pennsylvania and the Pittsburgh football team is called the Steelers.
The Great Upheaval A year of intense strikes and violent labor confrontations.
The Great Upheaval • Workers wanted higher pay and better working conditions • Pay was cut because of economic depression • More than 1,500 strikes across the nation occurred • Knights of Labor was involved in most of the strikes • Many of these turned violent • The worst was the Haymarket Riot
Connection • The Great Upheaval can be remembered by thinking of upheaval as violently turning something over, like the riots.
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE *made a compressed-air brake increased railroad safety by enabling the locomotive and all its cars to stop at the same time
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE *also developed a transformer that could transmit a high voltage alternating current allowed continued expansion of the use of electricity in urban households and industry
Compressed-air brake Transformer