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Creationism and Darwinism

Creationism and Darwinism

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Creationism and Darwinism

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  1. Creationism and Darwinism Susan Zianni English 9 Honors 15 October 2007 Inherit the Wind

  2. Creationism Defined Beliefs11 • 3,12Deity/deities created: • Humanity • Life • Earth • Universe • Original forms3 • 3Deity = God of Abraham • Judaism • Christianity • Islam • Rejection of evolution3 15

  3. Creationist Beliefs • God – absolute creator 18 • Out of nothing • Act of free will • Immanent (constantly involved) • Intervenes as necessary • w/o whose attention: • Creation disappears/ceases General Belief:12 • Organisms (may) adapt • No change • Completely different/ distinct organisms 1

  4. Creationism: Denominations Many branches3 11Most prevalent (U.S.A.) Christian Creationism 3,11Others include: Hindu Islamic Jewish Native American Sections of Christian Creationism 11

  5. 3 Comparison of Creationist Beliefs

  6. Fundamentalist Protestant Christian • Most common (U.S.A.)12 • 18Several terms: • Fundamentalists • Biblical literalists • Scientific Creationists • 12,18Bible (Genesis): • Literally true • History of universe • History of life (+humans) • 12God created Everything • 7 Days • Most: 24 hour days • Some: metaphoric • Oppose evolution18

  7. Darwinism Defined Charles Darwin: 9Collection of theories Mainstream scientists accept5 Ernst Mayr: 9One Argument -Evolution -Common descent 17 -Multiplication of species -Gradualism -Natural selection 6

  8. Mayr’s Theories 1 – 3 • 9Evolution - World: • Not constant • Not recent • Steadily changing • Common descent • Organisms – same ancestor9 • 4Simplistic ancestors • [natural evolution] • Complex creatures • Multiplication of species • Causes: organic diversity9 • Split into daughter species9 • 4Accumulate mutations • Entirely different organism 20

  9. Mayr’s Theory 4 - Gradualism • Species change gradually5 • Populations, not individuals9,16 • Change in genotypes, not phenotypes2 • Change not necessarily better • Paquin & Adams experiment: Yeast cultures2 • Strains superior to previous • Earlier strains outcompete later ones 7 19 8

  10. Mayr’s Theory 5 – Natural Selection • “survival of the fittest”5 • 10Organisms: • Produce offspring • Not all survive • Compete: limited resources • 4Random genetic mutations • Beneficial ones • Aid survival • Preserved • Accumulate over time • Domestic Breeding • Mutated Species: • Advantaged survive • reproduce • Disadvantaged die out 4

  11. Creationism vs. Darwinism • U.S.A.: • Creationist tendencies3, 11 • Europe: • Evolution widely taught3 • Opposite of U.S.A. • Creationism discouraged13 • Protests vs. suspending evolution instruction3 14

  12. Works Cited • bacterium Pseudomonas. APSnet Education Center – Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.apsnet.org/education/IllustratedGlossary/PhotosA- D/bacterium.htm>. • Colby, Chris. “Introduction to Evolutionary Biology.” TalkOrigins Archive.org. 7 Jan. 1996. TalkOrigins Archive. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-intro-to-biology.html>. • “Creationism.” Wikipedia.com. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 12 Oct. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creationism>. • “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.” AllAboutScience.org. AllAboutScience.org. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://darwins-theory-of- evolution.com/>. • E., Jeremy. “Evolutionary Terms Defined.” Creation vs. Evolution II. ThinkQuest. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://library.thinkquest.org/29178/evoterms.htm>.

  13. Works Cited • Ernst Mayr. Royal Society of New Zealand – 2005 Academy Yearbook. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.rsnz.org/directory/yearbooks/2005/mayr.php>. • Greenaway, Frank. Yeast culture at time 2. DK Images. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Science/Biology/ Unassigned/Unassigned-06.html>. • Greenaway, Frank. Yeast culture in petri dish. DK Images. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Plants/Fungi- Monera-Protista/Mushrooms-and-other-Fungi/Yeasts/Yeasts- 2.html>. • Hanes, Joel. “What is Darwinism?” TalkOrigins Archive.org. TalkOrigins Archive. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://talkorigins.org/faqs/darwinism.html>. • Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: Brief Summary.” Spaceandmotion.com. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Charles-Darwin-Theory- Evolution.htm>.

  14. Works Cited • Isaak, Mark. “What is Creationism?” TalkOrigins Archive.org. 12 Dec. 2002. TalkOrigins Archive. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/wic.html>. • L., Ross. “Theory of Creation.” Creation vs. Evolution II. ThinkQuest. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://library.thinkquest.org/29178/crtheory.htm>. • Lengagne, Guy. “Doc. 11297: The dangers of creationism in education.” Assembly.coe.int. 8 June 2007. Parlimentary Assembly/Assemblée parlementaire. 13 Oct. 2007 <http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/workingdocs/doc07/ edoc11297.htm>. • “LiveScience Image Gallery.” LiveScience.com. 2005. Imaginova Corp. 13 Oct. 2007 <http://www.livescience.com/php/multimedia/imagedisplay/img_display. php?pic=060810_evo_rank_02.jpg&cap=A+chart+showing+public+accept ance+of+evolution+in+34+countries.+The+United+States+ranked+near+t he+bottom%2C+beat+only+by+Turkey.+Credit%3A+Science>. • Moore, Glenda. “Abraham’s Sacrifice.” Gene Barry Fan Page. May 2007. Glenda Moore. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.xmission.com/~emailbox/gb- abraham.htm>.

  15. Works Cited • Moran, Laurence. “What is Evolution?” TalkOrigins Archive.org. 22 Jan. 1993. TalkOrigins Archive. 3 Oct. 2007. <http://talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html>. • Portrait of Charles Darwin. 1881. Charles Darwin Has a Posse. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/cpurrin1/evolk12/posse/ch azhasaposse.htm>. • Ruse, Michael. “Creationism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 30 Aug. 2003. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. 12 Oct. 2007 <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/creationism/> • Yeast cells in liquid culture. 1990. Microbiological Reviews. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.kent.ac.uk/ims/personal/msr/prion/biology/biolog y6/biology6.htm>. • Zimmer, Carl. The Tree of Life. 2002. Classification of Living Organisms. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.greenspirit.org.uk/resources/FiveKingdoms.htm>. Side note: All images without citations came from ClipArt

  16. The End Questions? Comments? Concerns?