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Rocket Nozzle Design

Rocket Nozzle Design. Group Members: Mike Nick. Introduction... Presentation Outline. Introduction (Nick) Brief Theory / FLUENT Modeling (Mike) Literature / Experimental Data (Nick) Conclusion (Mike). Introduction... Project Objectives.

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Rocket Nozzle Design

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  1. Rocket Nozzle Design Group Members:Mike Nick

  2. Introduction...Presentation Outline • Introduction (Nick) • Brief Theory / FLUENT Modeling (Mike) • Literature / Experimental Data (Nick) • Conclusion (Mike)

  3. Introduction...Project Objectives To analyze four simplified nozzle geometries in a model rocket and calculate their maximum thrust. Compare the theoretical and experimental thrust of these nozzles. Choose the best nozzle based on our data.

  4. Introduction...Which simplifications? The Nozzle Configurations we modeled: • Orifice • Converging Nozzle • Diverging Nozzle • Converging-Diverging (Click on links above to see the various configurations)

  5. Introduction...Rocket Particulars • The type of rocket we modeled: • Solid Propellant / Core Burning • Core burning rockets burn propellant from the “inside out.” This is in comparison to end-burning rockets which burn propellant from the “bottom up.” Graphic from: http://www.sewanee.edu/physics/SEMINARS/HTML%20Rowland/sld011.htm

  6. Introduction...Rocket Particulars The size of rocket we modeled: 0.25 Inch diameter casing 2) 2.25 Inches Long

  7. Brief TheoryHow to calculate thrust The general thrust equation is given as follows: Graphic from: http://members.aol.com/ricnakk/th_thrst.html

  8. GAMBITBoundaryConditions

  9. GAMBITThe Mesh Triangular Elements40 to 400 Intervals/Inch

  10. FLUENTAssumptions • Axisymmetric 2D Flow • Steady State / Constant Pressure Inlet • Compressible Flow • Ideal Gas (air)

  11. FLUENTParticular Settings • On all configurations the iterations were run to a residual of 1e-3 • Turbulent Flow (K-E model) • Variable Density • Used 2nd Order Equations to Calculate Density / Pressure / Momentum

  12. FLUENTVelocity Contour Plots

  13. FLUENTPressure Contour Plots

  14. FLUENTDensity Contour Plots

  15. FLUENTResults

  16. FLUENTGraphical Results

  17. Literature The preponderance of literature clearly shows the Converging – Diverging Nozzle as the most efficient nozzle design. Diagrams like this (right) are not uncommon: Graphic from: http://www.nakka-rocketry.net/lambda_p.html

  18. Literature Similar Pressure Trends

  19. Experimental DataIntroduction Homemade rockets with these four various nozzle geometries were built and tested. All thrust values were measured and recorded.

  20. Experimental DataExperimental Setup Method #1 Method #1 In this case the nozzle thrust was downward onto the scale. Before ignition, a thin metal plate was placed on top of the scale to protect it from the flame.

  21. Experimental DataTesting Using Method #1 For record keeping, a camcorder was zoomed up close to the scale and recording. Note the metal plate protecting the plastic of the scale.

  22. Experimental DataMethod #1 (Thrust Downward)

  23. Experimental DataExperimental Setup Method #2 Method #2 In this case the nozzle was placed into a hollow tube and thrust was directed upward. Thus the rocket pushed onto the scale.

  24. Experimental DataTesting Using Method #2 Note the camcorder was zoomed up close to the scale. (Right) Movie of Converging-Diverging Run: Click on Image to Play

  25. Experimental DataData Using Method #2 We were able to go back and watch our results on TV in slow motion.

  26. Experimental DataMethod #2 (Thrust Upwards)

  27. Conclusion

  28. Next time…

  29. Questions?

  30. Converging/Diverging

  31. Diverging

  32. Converging

  33. Orifice

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