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  1. TODAY • What are the typologies of tourism development • Models of tourism development • Answers exam

  2. TYPOLOGIES TOURISM DEVELOPMENT • Ex-nihilo tourism development • Attached tourism development • Transformation • Supplementation • Diversification • Renovation

  3. TYPOLOGIES OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT • Autonomous / Spontaneous • Functional (self-contained) • Catalytic

  4. Characteristic of autonomous/spontaneous development • Lack of structure • Disharmony of capacities • Lack of control • Conflicts • Uncertainty

  5. Characteristics of functional development • Isolated development • Balanced development • One single developer • Rapid development • High standard clientele

  6. Example of functional development of LA PLAGNE • End 50s: agriculture decline and closure of mines in Isere Valley. • End 60s: 5 communes build access road to 2000m. • Bankers from Paris establish Societe d’ Amenagement de la Plagne. • S.A.P gets exclusive rights to construct accommodation and ski lifts. • 1968 realization ski-lift network, 5000 beds, apartments sold to private owners, rapid return on investment • Early 70s: S.A.P develops satellite resorts • Ski-lift exploitation by “communes” and private companies. • Spin off development down in valley by “communes” (creation of chalets, gites).

  7. Characteristic of Catalytic development Single developer creates only basic facilities in the expectation that other investors will follow

  8. Characteristic of Catalytic development • Attached: • initiative from local community • external initial developer • local investments follow • development is grafted on and integrated with existing settlement • Development is more divers

  9. Catalytic • Ex-nihilo • (semi) government organization invests in basic facilities • external investors in all kinds of other facilities are attracted

  10. Example of Catalytic development of VARS • 1950s: agriculture decline, emigration • 1958: major interested Paris investors to establish the Societe pour l’Equipment et Development de Vars (S.E.D.E.V) • 1960s: community cedes land to S.E.D.E.V for construction of ski-lifts and a few large-scale accommodation blocks. • Banks provide cheap loans to locals • Locals open private shops, create small hotels and transform private houses into pensions • S.E.D.E.V sells initial developments to locals and regional companies and developers.

  11. Baker’s model Alps



  14. TBRM (Tentative beach resort model) characteristics • Evolutionary model, 8 phases • resort level • autonomous/spontaneous development • local population before tourism development • empirical research

  15. TBRM (Tentative beach resort model) Through the various stages and through time, 5 general changes take place: • growth in number of visitors • growth in accommodation capacity • growth in percentage of package tourists= growth of the influence of T.Os • decrease in local control • shift from natural and cultural attractions to man-made attractions.

  16. TBRM 8 phases

  17. TBRM 8 phases

  18. TBRM 8 phases

  19. TBRM 8 phases

  20. TBRM 8 phases

  21. TBRM 8 phases

  22. TBRM 8 phases

  23. Questions • Typologies: ex-nihilo, attached • transformation, supplementation, diversification, renovation • autonomous, functional, catalytic • models: butler, miossec, TBRM

  24. Answers exam nov. 2005 – part 1 • Mill and Morrison argument that the interdependency in tourism is one of the reasons for the tourism system approach they prefer. Explain and clarify what is meant by interdependency in tourism. • Interdependency because tourism (or the tourism system) consists of several interrelated parts working together to achieve a common purpose, which M&M call the tourism sytem. Tourism is like a spiders web. • Tourism in destinations consists of several interelated tourism product elements that only together or in combination (interdepent) with each other present the complete tourism destination product.

  25. 2 What is meant by the statement ‘’The balance of power in modern tourism is shifting from the tourism generating areas towards tourism destination areas” and what is your personal view/vision on this statement, do you agree or disagree, give arguments for your view/vision. • The control over marketing services, transport services and touroperating services is shifting towards the destination areas. Communication technology and internet are reducing the power of outgoing T.O.’s in tourism generating areas and strengthening the power of the destination areas. • In terms of the tourism system: the attachment of the marketing and the travel box/part towards the tourism destination part/box is becoming stronger. The same attachments towards the demand part/box is getting weaker.

  26. 3 Is it possible to compare the tourism system from Mill and Morrison and the tourism system that is mentioned in the article “Tourism development-a systems approach’’ (z.A.Liu). Explain why this is possible or not. Possible of course. M&M can be seen as a part (the inner) part of the tourism system from LIU. So LIU adds environments which seems to be implicit in the M&M model

  27. 4 How can tourism planning and development be connected on to a destination life cycle model (TDLC) or on to a tourism product life cycle model (TPLC). Clarify your answer with a drawing or model of a TDLC or TPLC. • This can be seen as pre-operational activities for totally new developments. TPD activities that are not always that visual for consumers or organisations that are not directly involved in the planning and development process. TPD precedes the TDLC or TPLC and is less visible.

  28. 5 Explain four activities of the World Tourism Organization. • Communication and documentation: WTO maintain contacts with members through tourism Fairs, FITUR Madrid, ITB Berlin, ITB London. Also WTOs’ documentation centre maintain wide range of tourism research information sources. • Co-operation for development: WTO provides advice and assistance to governments on a wide range of tourism development issues and projects including tourism development master plans and other forms of tourism “know how” technology transfer to developing nations. • Education & Training: WTO provide training and education around the world & distance education learning courses as well. • Quality of tourism development: WTO helps its members and other countries as well to promote sustainable tourism development. • Statistics & market research: WTO collects, analyse and disseminate tourism data from most of the countries and territories in the world. It is reliable information based on sets of international standards and reporting of tourism activities and statistics.

  29. 6 In the tourism policy model, there are internal and external constraints, explain them. • External constraints: outside the direct control of the destination, while internal constraints can be influenced by the tourism policy. Because of the volume of demand is closely related to the income/ from generating country, a stagnant economic situation suggests that a destination should plan for limited growth and a policy if improve quality rather than quantity. • Internal constraints: influence tourism policy, such as the availability of investment, are there any financial for investment in tourism, enough land to build and develop new projects and attractions/ lack of capital and money of investment destinations especially in third world countries, but the attractions and development of foreign capital results in loss of local control and leakage from the economy. The availability of human resources, tourism is a people business/ if there are no skilled people this should influence the policy.

  30. 7 In the case study “actors of change” the decentralization laws resulted in three main changes of the government’s roles, explain these changes • Enhanced responsibilities in local authorities • Ability of community to influence tourism development plans • Has led to emphasis on sustainable tourism strategies/ actually central government has been shifted from investment, promotion, and infrastructure development (supply side) to minimizing (managing growth) negative impacts of tourism development and activities!

  31. 8 Explain what is meant by carrying capacity and refer to 3 different types. Carrying capacity:Level of tourists presence which creates impacts on the host community, environment and economy which are acceptable to both tourists and host community, and sustainable over future times. • Physical; maximum number of visitors possible, it is relatively easy to calculate. • Environmental; refers to maximum presence of tourists without damaging the natural or man-made environment. • Perceptual; refers to the experience of tourists themselves • Social; refers to the local population • Economical; refers to the possibility of other economic activities being able to continue their operations.

  32. 9 Mention the several steps in the tourism planning process; • Explain what is meant by the step ‘synthesis and visioning’. • The first step is the position statement for each of the five topics. The position statement describes the existing situation (where are we now) • The second step is the visioning: In which the desired future situation for tourism is determined (Where would we like to be?).

  33. 10 • Comprehensive planning If tourism is a part of the overall development planning you talk about a comprehensive plan. The other part can be economics, social, land use, and infrastructure, they all play a part in the overall development strategy. • Tourism objective The tourism objectives flow logically from the selected strategy and support specific goals. They should be short-term and more measurable. • NTA National Tourism Administration Official national body responsible for the development, policy making and planning of tourism in specific countries. • Incremental planning Continuous and flexible. Aiming at certain objectives, but continuous modifications are made to changing circumstances. It is based on continuous monitoring and feedback. Are we still going in the right direction. Planning “bit by bit” with a constant review of the objectives which themselves may be continuously changing due to the achievability and level of ambition.