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Application of Standards for Visual Representation of ALM Objects

Application of Standards for Visual Representation of ALM Objects

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Application of Standards for Visual Representation of ALM Objects

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  1. Application of Standards for Visual Representation of ALM Objects Adolf Knoll National Library of the Czech Republic 4M

  2. What do we wish to achieve? • Access to various types of information, preferably over networks • Publications incl. fulltext • Visual documentation of museum objects, sites, monuments of architecture, … • Besides the so-called catalogue information we need direct access through various technologies

  3. Types of objects: libraries and archives • Classical documents: books, periodicals, manuscripts, letters, maps, postcards, … • Other analogue documents: microforms, video and audio recordins, slides,… • Digital documents • All on various carriers: paper, parchment, silk, glass, palm leaves, tape, disks, various plastic carriers, …

  4. Types of objects: museums • Paintings • Various 3D objects incl. those documenting development of techniques and technology • Archeological sites • Architectural monuments • Geological and paleontological • Events and performances

  5. Archeological site Site Empúries Digital photograph Representation of the concrete object Postcard Identification description of the site image JPEG, 24-bit, 355x251 pxl, 75 dpi, … Identification description of the postcard postcard Physical description is part of the identification

  6. Identification record • It describes general and concrete attributes of the object • Catalogue record • It has a recommended structure, which: • Reflects the needs of the concrete area • Enables communication; • … therefore, it gets standardized step by step

  7. Document - identification • Description or cataloguing rules: • AACR2 (modern documents) • MASTER (manuscripts) • Dublin Core (on-line documents) • DIEPER (periodicals) • …

  8. Formal expression of the standardized description • MARC • UNIMARC, INTERMARC, MARC21 (USMARC), • MAB2 • MASTER DTD for description of MSS • DIEPER DTD (unfortunately uncompleted) • Dublin Core as cataloguing in published electronic documents

  9. Syntactical expression of the formalized description • Labelled format with names of fields • MARC or any other structured labelled lines ASCII file • SGML file (which type, which DTD?) • DOBM (Memoriae Mundi, Kramerius) • TEI (MASTER) • XML (Memoriae Mundi from 2002)

  10. Three levels of understanding Cataloguing rules e.g. AACR2 Formalized in MARC Formalized in DublinCore Formalized in MASTER HTML/metatags DOBM XML Labelled format SGML TEI

  11. Museum object – identification • AMICO Data Specification – Catalogue • CDWA – Categories for the Description of Works of Art • Object ID • Systèmes descriptifs (architecture, movable objects incl. technological ones,…) • CIDOC Information Categories • Van Eyck, VRA, AFRICOM, MIDAS (architecture, archeology), RLG Cultural Materials AllianceDescription Guidelines Great variety of rules

  12. Museum object – formal structuring and syntax • Some standards do not speak about this • Several known standards have a labelled format (CDWA, AMICO, …) • There are attempts to apply XML (British SPECTRUM DTD in development)

  13. Documents Standardized recording of the same entity (authority files, thesauri) Personal names Subject Titles (partly) Corporate bodies Iconography (ICONCLASS) Museum objects Recommended dictionaries, thesauri Personal names (e.g. ULAN) Places (e.g. TGN) Subject (e.g. AAT, MET) Thesaurus of Geographic Names Compatibility of identification terms Union List of Artists Names The Art and Architecture Theasaurus DATE Multilingual Egyptological Thesaurus

  14. CDWA Oil painting subject Adoration of the Magi

  15. Document Nieuport 17 Military aircraft Propeller aircraft Historical aircraft Transport vehicles Author, publisher, date of publication, …. Technical object Description of the aircraft Description of the engine Description of the photograph Various approaches: generic identification vs. subject identification What have I on-line now?

  16. All these various pieces of information should be interconnected and made deliverable • Identification and location • Choice of approriate standards and their formal expressions • Cataloguing of objects and creation of databases • Formal bridging of databases, e.g. SFX technology (Metalib) • Semantic bridging !!! • Digitization of objects and their analogue representations • Choice of standard data formats • Choice of complex e-doc formats (XML) • Creation of digital libraries

  17. Identification record based MASTER DTD Technical record based on the NISO draft and ICC profiles Description of component parts Technical description of the images of component parts JPEG preview image JPEG user image JPEG archival image MrSID (maps) image TIFF/G4 image DjVu image Fulltext tagged in SGML TEI What do we do now? For representation of museum objects this can be done in an analogue manner.

  18. Samples • Celtic sites in Bohemia • Books and articles • Photograps of the arechological site – I, II • Museum objects • History of a town • Books and articles • Video and movies • Digital representations – e.g. postcards

  19. Grand-father’s mill in Hronov Old cemetery Memory stone Place