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Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

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Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

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  1. Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

  2. Civil Rights • The rights that belong to “all persons” in the Constitution and Bill of Rights • Freedoms of speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion • Due Process Rights • Fair Trial * VOTING Rights are for citizens only!

  3. Civil War and Reconstruction • At the end of the Civil War, the US moved towards equality by: • 13 Amendment: Ending Slavery • 14th Amendment: defining citizenship • 15th Amendment: outlawing racial discrimination in voting

  4. Civil War & Reconstruction • The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were made ineffective by Supreme Court Decisions and Jim Crow Laws • Discrimination by race was rampant and legal based on State laws (Jim Crow Laws)

  5. Truman Years 1945-1953 • 1947: Jackie Robinson become first African-American baseball player to “cross the color line” and play in the major leagues • 1947: To Secure These Rights was published by Truman’s Administration; called for civil rights legislation to be passed by Congress • 1948: Truman had 1st integrated Inauguration • 1948: desegregated Armed Services • 1949: ended discriminatory hiring in the Federal government

  6. Election of 1948 • 3 way race • Truman : Democrat • Dewey: Republican • Thurman: Dixiecrat • Most people thought Dewey would win • Issue of race/segregation split the Democratic Party

  7. Jackie Robinson

  8. Civil Rights and Litigation • Litigation: to resolve a dispute in a court of law

  9. Civil Rights and Litigation • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Case involved the Separate Car Act in New Orleans railroads • Homer Plessy, a prominent Creole businessman, took a seat in a white only railcar • Plessy argued the separate rail cars for blacks and whites was a violation of the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause • Decision was 7-1 in favor of Separate Car Act • Separate But Equal became the standard for public facilities in the US • Segregation by race/color was constitutional

  10. NAACP • National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People • Decided to fight separate but equal in court starting in the 1930’s • Challenged the EQUAL facilities

  11. Sweatt v. Painter, 1950 • NAACP challenged University of Texas over its refusal to admit Herman Sweatt into their Law School due to his race • UT argued that its constitution prohibited integrated education • Texas created a separate law school for blacks in order to keep Sweatt out of UT • US Supreme Court ruled that the separate school failed to meet the “equal” standard • UT was required to admit all qualified students to its law school without consideration of race or ethnicity

  12. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1953) • NAACP lawyers challenged Kansas public school segregation law • Linda Brown and other African-American students were denied entry into an all-white public school near their homes • Could only attend an inferior “colored” school further from their homes • NAACP claims this violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

  13. Brown v. Board of Education • NAACP argues that separate educational facilities offered to African Americans were inherentlyinferior • Sent the message that these students were inferior • Key turning point in the Civil Rights Movement

  14. Thurgood Marshall • NAACP attorney that argues the case in front of the Supreme Court • Will later become the first African-American Justice on the Supreme Court (LBJ appoints)

  15. Chief Justice Earl Warren and School Segregation • Chief Justice Warren writes in the Courts opinion that ALL public schools must be desegregated “with all deliberate speed”. • Enforcement was left to lower federal courts • The vague language of the decision allowed some States to delay implementation

  16. “Jim Crow Laws” • State laws that prevented African-Americans from sharing public facilities with Whites • Examples of Segregated Areas: • Beaches • Theaters • Restaurants • Water Fountains • Restrooms • Waiting Rooms at Bus and Train Stations • Seating on Buses • Etc…

  17. The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56 • December 1955: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man in Montgomery, AL • She was arrested & prosecuted • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lead a boycott of the city buses • Boycott lasts 13 months • King organized car pools and private taxi services • King was arrested and his home was bombed

  18. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Case went to federal court • Court ruled segregation on the buses violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment • Buses were desegregated • Proved that litigation and boycotts could overturn Jim Crow Laws

  19. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. • 1929-1965 • Baptist preacher • Urged African-Americans to protest unfair treatment and laws • Lead training for non-violent protest • Followed Gandhi’s practice of non-violent marches, sit-ins, and boycotts • Became the voice/face of the Civil Rights Movement

  20. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 • Signed by IKE • Create the Civil Right commission • Gave federal courts power to register African-Americans to vote • Procedures turned out to be too complicated • Few people were registered • Helped start the process of getting voting rights for minorities

  21. Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 • Arkansas delayed desegregating schools • Gov. OrvalFaubus publically proclaimed he would continue with segregation as long as possible • Ordered the Arkansas National guard to prevent 9 African-American students from entering Little Rock High School • He refused to protect the students from an angry mob

  22. Little Rock Nine • Nine African-American students who tried to desegregate Little Rock High School