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Rod Lefroy PowerPoint Presentation

Rod Lefroy

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Rod Lefroy

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  1. Research Highlights CIAT Asia Annual Program Review 2011 Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011 Rod Lefroy

  2. Current Activities in Asia • Activities / Projects • Cassava • Forages • Linking Farmers to Markets (LFM) • Land Use & Climate Change

  3. Cassava in Asia • Current production and prices as a driver • Activities in Asia • Projects • Outcomes • Focus

  4. Global Production of Cassava Asia = 31.5% Data source: FAOSTAT

  5. Increased Production • Influence of new varieties? • High and stable yields and high starch content • Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia • ↑ starch yield per ha

  6. Demand and prices are driving increased production Prices in Thailand Source: TTDI

  7. Cassava in Vietnam • 2000 to 2010 • Area:237,600 to 560,400 ha • Yield:8.36 t/ha to 16.90 t/ ha • Production:1.99 to 9.45 million t • Currently:70% exported; 30% used domestically • Processing capacity: 2.4-3.8 mill. t roots/year • 6 ethanol refineries soon: 550 million L/year Requires: ≈34% production ≈ 50% exports 2009 production in agroecologicalzones in Vietnam Each dot represents 1000 ha

  8. Cassava Varieties in Vietnam

  9. Production and Processing in China

  10. Main Cassava Provinces in China

  11. Production in China • Cassava area • Limited room for expansion due to competition with other crops and bioclimatic suitability • Intercropping to increase incomes • Farmers intercrop with maize, peanut, watermelon, soybean or other short-term crops, and some longer-term crops. • Labour • As the cost of labor increases, farmers move to small and big tractors. If the land is very steep they make terraces. • Fertilizer • Recommend N:P:K ratios of 5:1:8 for poor soils and 3:1:5 for normal soils and at rates up to 900kg/ha of compound fertilizer

  12. Production in Other Countries • Thailand • Production reduced in 2009 by 20-30% due to cassava mealybug • Desire to reduce area (at least not expand) but increase production • Cambodia • Extremely rapid expansion of area of production – and yield • Mealybug is a major threat • Good examples of returns on good agronomy • Expansion by concessions and through smallholders • Laos • Production still small, but expanding – along with processing • Others • Increased areas in Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines

  13. Cassava activities in the region • Projects • The Nippon Foundation (Cassava-based farming systems)Laos and Cambodia, plus Burma and VietnamVarieties and production systems • IFAD Asia Pacific Division (4FGF)Laos, Cambodia, and VietnamProduction systems, links to markets and processing, “waste” management and utilization • IFAD Technical Division (Biofuels: sweet sorghum, jatropha, and cassava)Breeding (Cali): conversion to ethanol (waxy, SGC, etc.)CLAYUCA: smallscale processing, utilization, & wastesVietnam & China: best varieties & agronomy for bioethanol

  14. Production focus • Selection of most suitable varieties • Yield and starch content • Dual purpose (eating and processing) • Suitability to higher altitudes • Agronomy • Fertilizer rates (returns on investment x 6) • Intercropping for income and erosion control • Direct erosion control (contours, etc.) • Seasonality (time of planting & harvest) to ↑ feedstock • Processing and utilization • On farm feeding systems • Local pre-processing: chips, wet starch, etc. • Waste utilization (feed, biogas, fertilizer, etc.) • Life Cycle Analysis

  15. Intercropping Systems

  16. Crop utilization, waste management and efficiency

  17. Pest and Disease Management in Asia • CIAT role in Mealybugresponse • Helped identify the cassava mealybug problem initially • Tony Bellotti confirmed the pest and control, providedprotocols on mass-rearing, and links to IITA population • Proposals for pest and disease R, D, & I • FAO-TCP only on mealybug in GMS (with “links” to CIAT, but limited capacity for roll out) • EU/IFAD funds on cassava pests and diseases(need to modify due to FAO-TCP) • Status • A.lopeziappears to control the mealybug in Thailand, but no roll out in other countries (esp. Cambodia) • Mites and whitefly causing concern • CBB and CWB present, but not rampant

  18. Tropical Forages in Asia • Forages, livestock and livelihoods • High Value Opportunities • From keepers to producers of livestock • Environment services • Component of farming systems for the uplands • Focus countries: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand

  19. Forage Activities in the Region • Projects • ACIAR • L4PP: Legumes and pigs in Lao uplands • F4B: Quality grasses for cattle in Cambodia • World Vision: Feed for cattle in rice-based NE Thailand • RSLP: Post-rice + upland forages in southern Lao • SPSP: Pig production and marketing, linked to animal andhuman health issues (CSIRO), in northern Lao • IFAD • FAP: Forages, production systems, and markets C. Vietnam • CLVDT: Improved production and marketing in Cambodia,Lao, Vietnam Development Triangle: South-South linkages

  20. Forage Impacts and Entry Points • (Reported in the Tropical Forages Program) • Main factors/impacts • Small areas of high quality forages that • Save labour • Increase growth rate • Market linkages and income • Secure livelihoods • Enable better production and health management • Institutional change • Scaling out mechanisms (govt, NGOs, etc. in Learning Alliances) • Systems change • Both production and marketing systems

  21. Cambodia, F4B • Improved grasses including Mulato1+2 & Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’ for upland areas and Paspalum atratum and Brachiariahumidicola ‘Llanero’ for partly water logged lowlands • Successfully adopted by farmers in the project area • Allowed competition with the Thai cattle industry • Extension partly through farmer-to-farmer exchange

  22. Cambodia, F4B (continued) • Forage fodder banks significantly reduced the amount of time needed to feed and manage cattle in all seasons • Greatest benefit in the early wet and flooding seasons • Main beneficiaries: children and men (who care for cattle) Units: (hrs/day)

  23. Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP • Increased productivity through forages introduced by CIAT • Higher productivity lead to use of more demanding cattle breeds in Ea Kar District, DakLak Province, Vietnam

  24. Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP • More than 1000 farmers adopted forage grasses • Success from combining technical inputs with linking farmers to markets • Innovative indirect crediting systems permitted integration of extremely poor in market chain • Out-scaling through IFAD investment/loan project with FAP mentoring and training • Active integration of policy makers

  25. Linking Farmers to Markets in Asia • SDC-funded SADU Project: Review just completed • Agro-Enterprise Development Process: Area Based Approach Product selection Market chain studies Action plan / interventions Area based and Smallholder focus => Risk of being seen as supply driven

  26. Supply Chains and Stakeholders • SADU works in very different supply chains (currently 14) • Roots, tubers, and cereals • Fruits & vegetables • Livestock • Non-timber forest products • All supply chains important for poor and ethnic minorities • SADU works with • Farming households • Collectors/traders • Local extension services • Processing firms • Policy-makers • Experts (universities and research institutes)

  27. Types of interventions • Wide range & vary across supply chains • Stakeholder awareness • Collective action • Technology adoption • profitable & competitive farming enterprises • profitable & competitive processing enterprises • Enabling Business Development Services • Policy and regulations • Contract farming • Testing of supermarket chains • Product branding

  28. Level of Focus / Intervention • Individual village level • No allowance for scaled impacts • Cluster of villages • More potential for impact • Commune (Vn) or Sub-District (La) • “Structure” helps the expansion / scaling out • Province • Capacity to facilitate or drive interventions • Multi-province or national • If policy or regulations are drivers • If volume is an issue (e.g. medium- and large-scale agribusiness)

  29. Research Studies & Policy Briefs • Studies • The role of women in farmer groups: case study on corn production groups in Luang Nam ThaProvince • Models for Contract Farming: case study on corn production in Pak Xeng district, LuangPrabangProvince • Case study on contract Farming Model for Pig Production in Vientiane capital, Savannakhet and ChampasackProvinces • The linkage between farmers organizations and agricultural markets in Vientiane and OudomxayProvinces • Draft Policy Briefs • Contract Farming • Producer Groups • Open versus Regulated Trade

  30. Land Use and Climate Change • “Study on Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Land Use in the Lao PDR” • Implemented by DAPA and CIAT Asia for GTZ • Included • Climate • Crop suitability • Land Use Change • Resilience / adaptation • Small study, but generated a lot of interest • “Managing water in rainfed agriculture: the key to food security in the GMS” • Implemented by IWMI, with CIAT and National Partners • Commissioned by Sida • Develop into land, water, and farming system management project for the GMS

  31. Current Activities match New Strategy 3 1 2 4