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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:Slavery and the West Section 2:A Nation Dividing Section 3:Challenges to Slavery Section 4:Secession and War Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. Slavery and the West Essential QuestionDid the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism? Chapter Intro

  4. A Nation Dividing Essential QuestionHow did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas? Chapter Intro

  5. Challenges to Slavery Essential QuestionWhat was the significance of the Dred Scott decision? Chapter Intro

  6. Secession and War Essential QuestionWhat role did the theory of states’ rights play in the outbreak of the Civil War? Chapter Intro

  7. Chapter Time Line

  8. Chapter Time Line

  9. Chapter Preview-End

  10. Did the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism? Section 1-Essential Question

  11. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • sectionalism • fugitive • secede • abstain Academic Vocabulary • temporary • regulate Section 1-Key Terms

  12. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Missouri Compromise • Stephen A. Douglas • Compromise of 1850 Section 1-Key Terms

  13. A B C D Rate your agreement with the following statement: It is better to compromise to get something accomplished than to stand 100% firm on what you believe. A.Strongly agree B.Somewhat agree C.Somewhat disagree D.Strongly disagree Section 1-Polling Question

  14. The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise temporarily resolved the issue of whether new states would be slave states or free states. Section 1

  15. The Missouri Compromise (cont.) • The many differences between the North and South grew into sectionalism. • Missouri’s request for statehood sparked a debate in Congress because it would disrupt the even balance of slave and free states. • The Missouri Compromise of 1821 brought about a temporary lull in the debate. The Missouri Compromise Section 1

  16. A B C D Who drafted the Missouri Compromise? A.Henry Clay B.James Monroe C.James Polk D.Thomas Jefferson Section 1

  17. A New Compromise The Compromise of 1850 addressed several issues, including slavery in the territories. Section 1

  18. A New Compromise (cont.) • In the 1840s bitter debate erupted in Congress over whether territories acquired in the war with Mexico would be open to slavery. • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina argued that Congress had no right to regulate or ban slavery in any territory. Section 1

  19. A New Compromise (cont.) • The Free-Soil Party was formed in response to the 1848 presidential candidates’ refusal to take a stand on the slavery issue. • Whig Zachary Taylor won the election, but the Free-Soil Party gained several seats in Congress. New Territories and the Free-Soil Party Section 1

  20. A New Compromise (cont.) • The South demanded strong national fugitive slave acts and considered seceding if California entered the Union as a free state. • Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas ended the crisis by dividing Henry Clay’s plan into parts that could be voted on separately. • Though several Whigs abstained from the vote, five bills were passed which became known as the Compromise of 1850. Section 1

  21. A B C D Which of the following was a proposal to ban slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico? A.The Compromise of 1850 B.The Wilmot Proviso C.The Missouri Compromise D.The Freeport Doctrine Section 1

  22. Section 1-End

  23. How did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas? Section 2-Essential Question

  24. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • popular sovereignty • border ruffians • civil war Academic Vocabulary • network • inevitable Section 2-Key Terms

  25. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Fugitive Slave Act • Kansas-Nebraska Act • John Brown Section 2-Key Terms

  26. A B C If you disagree with a law, do you have the right not to obey it? A.Yes, always B.No, never C.Only under certain circumstances Section 2-Polling Question

  27. The Fugitive Slave Act The Fugitive Slave Act required all citizens to help catch runaways, yet many Northerners refused to cooperate. Section 2

  28. The Fugitive Slave Act (cont.) • The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 required all citizens to help catch runaways. • Anyone who aided a fugitive could be fined or imprisoned. Section 2

  29. The Fugitive Slave Act (cont.) • After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, Southern slave owners stepped up their efforts to capture runaway slaves who made their way north along the network of safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. Section 2

  30. A B C D What resulted from the Fugitive Slave Act? A.Passage of the law quieted widespread violence in Kansas and Nebraska. B.Most Northerners believed Southern slaveholders’ rights should be upheld. C.Abolitionists were jailed in the North. D.The law angered the North, convincing many of the evils of slavery. Section 2

  31. The Kansas-Nebraska Act The Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted from another dispute over slavery in Congress. Section 2

  32. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (cont.) • Both Kansas and Nebraska were North of the 36°30'N latitude, meaning they would be free states when admitted to the Union. • The 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed for popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery. Slavery and Sectionalism Section 2

  33. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (cont.) • In Kansas a pro-slavery legislature was elected because of border ruffians from Missouri who voted in Kansas. Antislavery groups formed their own government. • An outbreak of violence became inevitable, and a civil war erupted in Kansas. • John Brown led antislavery forces in retaliation against pro-slavery attacks in Lawrence. Section 2

  34. A B C D What was the main cause of the Civil War in Kansas? A.Dual governments set up by pro- and antislavery groups B.Passage of the Fugitive Slave Act C.John Brown’s attack on Pottawatomie Creek D.Invasion of Kansas by border ruffians Section 2

  35. Section 2-End

  36. What was the significance of the Dred Scott decision? Section 3-Essential Question

  37. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • arsenal • martyr Academic Vocabulary • rigid • topic Section 3-Key Terms

  38. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Republican Party • John C. Frémont • James Buchanan • Dred Scott • Abraham Lincoln Section 3-Key Terms

  39. A B C D Which political issue is most important to you? A.Foreign policy B.Domestic policy C.The economy D.Government reform Section 3-Polling Question

  40. A New Political Party Opponents of slavery from different political parties came together to form the new Republican Party. Section 3

  41. A New Political Party (cont.) • In 1854, antislavery members of the Democratic, Whig, and Free-Soil parties joined together to form the Republican Party. • The Republican Party was strong in the North and had almost no support in the South. Section 3

  42. A New Political Party (cont.) • In the 1856 presidential election, Republican John C. Frémont ran against Democrat James Buchanan, who supported the idea of popular sovereignty. • In addition, former president Millard Fillmore ran as a member of the American, or Know-Nothing, Party. • With voting along rigid sectional lines, Buchanan won the election. The Election of 1856 Section 3

  43. A B C D What is popular sovereignty? A.The idea that slaves should be free B.The idea that the popular vote, not electoral votes, should decide an election C.The joining together of members from different political parties to form a new party D.The idea that each state or territory should decide on the issue of slavery independently Section 3

  44. The Dred Scott Case The Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott case dealt a severe blow to antislavery forces and further divided the country. Section 3

  45. The Dred Scott Case (cont.) • In 1846, enslaved African American Dred Scott sued for his freedom because he once lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, where slavery was banned. • The case reached the Supreme Court in 1857. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and the Court ruled: • That Scott had no right to bring a lawsuit because he was not a citizen. Section 3

  46. The Dred Scott Case (cont.) • That an enslaved person was property and the Fifth Amendment prohibits Congress from taking away property without due process. • The Missouri Compromise and popular sovereignty were unconstitutional. • The ruling angered Republicans and further divided the country. Section 3

  47. A B C D The Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott case stated which of the following? A.Enslaved persons could bring lawsuits. B.Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory. C.The slave trade should be abolished. D.The Missouri Compromise was constitutional. Section 3

  48. Lincoln and Douglas The Lincoln-Douglas debates placed the little-known Lincoln into the national spotlight. Section 3

  49. Lincoln and Douglas (cont.) • Republican Abraham Lincoln ran against Democrat Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Senate race in Illinois. • Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates, the main topic of which was slavery, in the fall of 1858. • Though he narrowly lost the election, Lincoln gained a national reputation as a clear thinker and persuasive speaker. Section 3

  50. Lincoln and Douglas (cont.) • In 1859, John Brown led a raid on an arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA, in hopes of arming enslaved African Americans and starting a revolt against slaveholders. • Brown was executed, but many antislavery Northerners saw him as a martyr for the Abolitionist cause. Section 3