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Chapter 7 Cell to Cell Interactions

Chapter 7 Cell to Cell Interactions

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Chapter 7 Cell to Cell Interactions

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  1. Chapter 7 Cell to Cell Interactions

  2. When a signal molecule arrives at a G protein-linked receptor, the G proteinbinds with a Ca2+binds with calmodulinbecomes activatedbinds to the signal molecule becomes deactivated

  3. In desmosomes adherin links to _____ of an adjacent cell.cadherins integrinsconnexonsras proteinsplasmodesmata

  4. Which pair are examples of second messengers?sodium and potassium ionsamino acids and proteinssteroids and lipidssugars and starchescAMP and calcium ions

  5. The antigen response to many antibodies is called Polyclonal_____________

  6. Chemically gated ion Channels_______ open or close when signal molecules bind to the channel, allowing specific ions to diffuse through the channel.

  7. . The signaling molecules that travel the farthest areendocrinesynapticparacrineneurotransmitterintracellular

  8. Long lived molecules; affect cells very distant from the releasing cell; hormonesparacrine signalssynaptic signalsdirect contact signalsendocrine signals

  9. Some enzymic receptors and most G protein linked receptors carry the signal molecule’s message into the target cell by utilizing other substances within the cytoplasm commonly calledgenesantibodiesenzymesfirst messengerssecond messengers

  10. Hybridoma__________ is the name given to a cell formed by the fusion of a plasma cell and a myeloma.

  11. Cyclic AMP and calcium ions often behave as second Messengers____________, intracellular substances that ultimately communicate messages from receptors to target proteins.

  12. Plasmodesmataencircle cells of a tight junction like a beltconnect to intermediate fibers of the cytoskeletonconnect the cytoplasm of one plant cell to that of anotherconnect actin fibers of one cell to the extracellular matrix of another

  13. Molecules on the cell’s plasma membrane; important in early development; lipids,direct contact signalscarbohydratesparacrine signalssynaptic signalsendocrine signals

  14. The class of cell surface receptors that act indirectly on plasma membrane bound enzymes or ion channels are calledGated channelsEnzymic receptorsG proteinsSecond messengersAntibodies

  15. Intercellular communication over long distance by means of hormones is Endocrine______ signaling.

  16. Tight and anchoring Junctions_______ cause cells to adhere tightly to each other.

  17. One protein kinase cascade begins with the phosphorylation of the tap proteingat proteinsap proteinras proteinsat protein

  18. The molecules released by neurons; released very close to the target cells;using neurotransmittersendocrine signalsparacrine signalsdirect contact signalssynaptic signals

  19. The molecules that convert extracellular signals into intracellular ones are neurotransmitterspeptide hormonescell surface receptorsgrowth factor proteins genes

  20. A pore that opens or closes when a particular ion or molecule binds to its protein are said to be Chemically Gated__.

  21. Intracellular___________ receptors are those that can diffuse through the cell membrane and trigger a response inside the cell.

  22. Cells used for producing monoclonal antibodies such as interferon are carcinomasmyelomasarcomaslymphomashybridomas

  23. Short lived molecules causing local effects; destroyed by extracellular enzymes; important in early development and coordination of activities of neighboring cluster of cellssynaptic signalsdirect contact signalsparacrine signalsendocrine signals

  24. Signal molecules activate intracellular receptors in chromosomesvesiclesskin cellstarget cellssurface cells

  25. All Monoclonal Antibodies______ obtained from a cluster of immune cells descended from the same cell bind to the same type of molecule.

  26. Amplification____________ speeds up intracellular messages and produces a larger response.

  27. Cell signals with short-lived local effects are called _______ signals.holocrinemicrocrineapocrineparacrinenone of the above

  28. In plants, cell-cell junctions can only occur at gaps in the cell walls through cytoplasmic connections that form across the plasma membranes of the touching cells.desmosomestight junctionsplasmadesmatacellulose matrixadhering junctions

  29. Signals with short-lived local effects are calledlight signalssynaptic signalsendocrine signalsdirect contactparacrine signals

  30. Communication__________ among cells is a hallmark of multicelluar organisms, an ability the prokaryotes lack.

  31. In anchoring junctions, cadherins are linked toThe basement membraneThe cell membraneThe cytoskeleton of two cellsThe nucleusThe endoplasmic reticulum

  32. Small molecules or ions can pass from one cell to another throughtight junctionscommunicating junctionsdiffusion spheresdesmosomesadherins junctions

  33. Communication between cells can occur by all of the following basic mechanisms exceptdirect contactparacrine signalingendocrine signalingsynaptic signalingsignaling to digest plasma membrane

  34. Located on or within the cell are Receptor_____________ proteins, each of which has a 3-d shape complementary to that of a specific signal molecule.

  35. Which is a common second messenger?cGTPcMHCcAMPcATPcRNA

  36. In the digestive tract adjacent cells develop connections calleddesmosomesgap junctionsion gatestight junctionscommunicating junctions

  37. An antibody is an immune system molecule that is made by the host as one of a multitude of responses to an outside signal molecule. It is called a lipidcarbohydrateglycolipidprotein

  38. Cells in a multicellular organism communicate with each other by means of Signal__________ molecules that bind to receptor proteins.

  39. ______ junctions may protect a damaged cell through chemical gating.TightGapAdherinsOccludingMacular

  40. Most cells are in physical contact with other cells at all times by forming permanent connections calledgated ion channelsenzymic receptorscell junctionsG protein linked receptorsCell surface markers

  41. Cell-cell communication does not allow which of the following actions?Determine an individual cell’s position in the bodyAdjust the metabolism of an individual cell.Allow the individual cell to growAllow the cell to live foreverAllow the cell to divide at the proper time

  42. Endocrine signaling involves the use of Hormones______________.