When a signal molecule arrives at a G protein-linked receptor, the G proteinbinds with a Ca2+binds with calmodulinbecomes activatedbinds to the signal molecule becomes deactivated
In desmosomes adherin links to _____ of an adjacent cell.cadherins integrinsconnexonsras proteinsplasmodesmata
Which pair are examples of second messengers?sodium and potassium ionsamino acids and proteinssteroids and lipidssugars and starchescAMP and calcium ions
The antigen response to many antibodies is called Polyclonal_____________
Chemically gated ion Channels_______ open or close when signal molecules bind to the channel, allowing specific ions to diffuse through the channel.
. The signaling molecules that travel the farthest areendocrinesynapticparacrineneurotransmitterintracellular
Long lived molecules; affect cells very distant from the releasing cell; hormonesparacrine signalssynaptic signalsdirect contact signalsendocrine signals
Some enzymic receptors and most G protein linked receptors carry the signal molecule’s message into the target cell by utilizing other substances within the cytoplasm commonly calledgenesantibodiesenzymesfirst messengerssecond messengers
Hybridoma__________ is the name given to a cell formed by the fusion of a plasma cell and a myeloma.
Cyclic AMP and calcium ions often behave as second Messengers____________, intracellular substances that ultimately communicate messages from receptors to target proteins.
Plasmodesmataencircle cells of a tight junction like a beltconnect to intermediate fibers of the cytoskeletonconnect the cytoplasm of one plant cell to that of anotherconnect actin fibers of one cell to the extracellular matrix of another
Molecules on the cell’s plasma membrane; important in early development; lipids,direct contact signalscarbohydratesparacrine signalssynaptic signalsendocrine signals
The class of cell surface receptors that act indirectly on plasma membrane bound enzymes or ion channels are calledGated channelsEnzymic receptorsG proteinsSecond messengersAntibodies
Intercellular communication over long distance by means of hormones is Endocrine______ signaling.
Tight and anchoring Junctions_______ cause cells to adhere tightly to each other.
One protein kinase cascade begins with the phosphorylation of the tap proteingat proteinsap proteinras proteinsat protein
The molecules released by neurons; released very close to the target cells;using neurotransmittersendocrine signalsparacrine signalsdirect contact signalssynaptic signals
The molecules that convert extracellular signals into intracellular ones are neurotransmitterspeptide hormonescell surface receptorsgrowth factor proteins genes
A pore that opens or closes when a particular ion or molecule binds to its protein are said to be Chemically Gated__.
Intracellular___________ receptors are those that can diffuse through the cell membrane and trigger a response inside the cell.
Cells used for producing monoclonal antibodies such as interferon are carcinomasmyelomasarcomaslymphomashybridomas
Short lived molecules causing local effects; destroyed by extracellular enzymes; important in early development and coordination of activities of neighboring cluster of cellssynaptic signalsdirect contact signalsparacrine signalsendocrine signals
Signal molecules activate intracellular receptors in chromosomesvesiclesskin cellstarget cellssurface cells
All Monoclonal Antibodies______ obtained from a cluster of immune cells descended from the same cell bind to the same type of molecule.
Amplification____________ speeds up intracellular messages and produces a larger response.
Cell signals with short-lived local effects are called _______ signals.holocrinemicrocrineapocrineparacrinenone of the above
In plants, cell-cell junctions can only occur at gaps in the cell walls through cytoplasmic connections that form across the plasma membranes of the touching cells.desmosomestight junctionsplasmadesmatacellulose matrixadhering junctions
Signals with short-lived local effects are calledlight signalssynaptic signalsendocrine signalsdirect contactparacrine signals
Communication__________ among cells is a hallmark of multicelluar organisms, an ability the prokaryotes lack.
In anchoring junctions, cadherins are linked toThe basement membraneThe cell membraneThe cytoskeleton of two cellsThe nucleusThe endoplasmic reticulum
Small molecules or ions can pass from one cell to another throughtight junctionscommunicating junctionsdiffusion spheresdesmosomesadherins junctions
Communication between cells can occur by all of the following basic mechanisms exceptdirect contactparacrine signalingendocrine signalingsynaptic signalingsignaling to digest plasma membrane
Located on or within the cell are Receptor_____________ proteins, each of which has a 3-d shape complementary to that of a specific signal molecule.
In the digestive tract adjacent cells develop connections calleddesmosomesgap junctionsion gatestight junctionscommunicating junctions
An antibody is an immune system molecule that is made by the host as one of a multitude of responses to an outside signal molecule. It is called a lipidcarbohydrateglycolipidprotein
Cells in a multicellular organism communicate with each other by means of Signal__________ molecules that bind to receptor proteins.
______ junctions may protect a damaged cell through chemical gating.TightGapAdherinsOccludingMacular
Most cells are in physical contact with other cells at all times by forming permanent connections calledgated ion channelsenzymic receptorscell junctionsG protein linked receptorsCell surface markers
Cell-cell communication does not allow which of the following actions?Determine an individual cell’s position in the bodyAdjust the metabolism of an individual cell.Allow the individual cell to growAllow the cell to live foreverAllow the cell to divide at the proper time
Endocrine signaling involves the use of Hormones______________.