Terrestrial Biomes – large land ecosystems with characteristic plants and climate (temp./rainfall) Plants are the foundation of ecosystems. Energy enters an ecosystem through it’s plants and photosynthetic organisms (like algae, bacteria).
A biome’s climate is the limiting factor that determines which plants can survive there. The type of plants in a biome determine the type of animals which can survive there. Energy flows from producers, to consumers, to the decomposers.
Biotic Groups – Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 1. Bacteria Kingdoms Archaebacteria/Eubacteria – 2. Kingdom Protista – algae, protozoan, etc. 3. Kingdom Plantae – all plants 4. Kingdom Animalia – all animals 5. Kingdom Fungi – all mushrooms, mold, yeast, etc.
Tundra Located near the poles Permafrost – area just below the soil surface that stays permanently frozen
Tundra Rainfall – light Summer temperature – 34oF Mosses, lichens, grasses Reindeer, foxes, artic wolves, lemmings
Taiga/Coniferous forest Found above 60o N latitude Medium rainfall Summer temperature - 54oF
Taiga Trees produce cones – conifers spruce, fir, pines (Christmas Trees) They have cones and keep their needles all winter Moose, black bears, lynx, wolverines
Temperate Deciduous Forest http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm 20o – 60o N latitudes Summer temperature – 75oF Medium Rainfall
Temperate Deciduous Forest Trees change colors in the fall and lose their leaves in the winter. Oaks, poplars, sweet gum, sycamores Deer, rabbits, squirrels, raccoon, opossums
Grassland http://www.bcgrasslands.org/library/world.htm Middle latitudes Low rainfall Average summer temperature – 70oF Grass dominant plant
Grassland Sunflower, goldenrods, clover Bison, pronghorn antelopes, prairie dogs The Midwest is considered the bread basket of America because of the large amount of wheat (a grass) grown there.
Desert http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/what/world.html 0o – 20o latitude Very little rain 86oF
Desert Cacti , sage-brush, mesquite http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/types/cactus/ Kangaroo rat, snakes, lizards, birds, insects
Rainforest http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm Found near equators A lot of rainfall/humid 77oF
Rainforest Tall trees with dense canopies Lots of biodiversity - plants and animals
Freshwater Ecosystems Rivers, lakes, marshes, swamps Lots of variation in plants and animals from freshwater ecosystem to another
Marine Ecosystems – 3 distinct areas • Intertidal zone – shoreline between low and high tide – available light and nutrients but most stressed because of changing tides 2. Pelagic zone – 0-200 m – light available – lots of organisms 3. Benthic – ocean floor – bacteria, worms, crabs
Aquatic Ecosystems – Estuary – freshwater meets saltwater
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