Causes of WWI • Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914 • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria • Hostile alliances take effect---War declared • Central Powersvs. Allied Powers • Germany Great Britain • Austria/Hungary France • Ottoman Empire Russia • Trench warfare and the Western Front • 3. President Wilson • Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies • US belief = right to trade with all nations • Germany and Great Britain violated this policy. WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918
4. From neutrality to war. • German policy • Unrestricted submarine warfare= USW • U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) • Zimmerman Note:Jan. 1917 • 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany…… • Germans violated our trade and neutrality • War to end all war • The world must be made safe for democracy • Side with the Allies
US ENTERS THE WAR • President Wilson: The War to End All War • War outlook in Jan. 1917 • Poor for Allies: Why? • U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces • Led by General John J. Pershing • US Troops • 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress 3. Women in WWI • worked in the factories • 19th Amendment----women’s suffrage 4. End of War • Nov. 11th = 11-11-11 = end of the war • Germans sign an armistice
WWI, THE AFTERMATH 1. President Wilson’s 14 Points 2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries • Germany was forced to • pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion • Remain disarmed • Lost all colonies • Responsible for war • Created new countries • 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home • Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles • Does not join the League of Nations…….Why? • Lodge vs. Wilson • Draw U.S. into another war • Took away Congress’s power to declare war. • Americans wanted neutrality
4.Results of Treaty of Versailles • New democracies would fail without US aid • Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII 5. Post war adjustments….
1st World War in history • Great War or War to End all War • Not called WWI until after WWII • Total War (absolute involvement of all sectors of society, econ., politics, & w/no rules) • Involved 60 nations and 6 continents
Cost of War • $400 billion • $10 million dollars an hour • 16 million deaths • First war of the Industrial Revolution…… • New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Poison Gas Machine Gun
LEADERS AND HEROES OF WWI Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing Sen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Leninn Rickenbacker von Richthofen Central Powers Allied Powers
MAIN – The Cause of All Wars? Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Nationalism • Countries proud of their heritage and culture • Similar topatriotism • Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country • Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
franz ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.
alliances1 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. • Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. • This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Imperialism • France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia • Economic and political control over other countries…… • These countries were in competition for colonies
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism
Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Militarism • European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world….The Great White Fleet (remember the great world tour?)
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism!
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Alliances • European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. • Triple Alliance Triple EntenteCentral PowersAllied Powers • Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire FranceBulgaria Russia
alliances1 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • June 28Assassination at Sarajevo • July 28Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • July 30Russia began mobilization • 4. August 1Germany declared war on Russia
alliances2 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • August 3Germany declared war on France • 6. August 3Great Britain declared war on Germany • August 6Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. • August 12Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire France Russia Italy (what side are we on again? I can never remember…) Turkey
GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM battle fronts • German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. • Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army • Belgium puts up a strong fight. • 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. • France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
STALEMATE AND WARFARE Stalemate • By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. • When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. • Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare • Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. • Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. • As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
US IN 1914 • Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. • US was officially NEUTRAL (connect to?)
WILSON'S NEUTRALITY The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendlinessto all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy.Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES
notes2 US POLICY BEFORE WWI • US believed: • It had the right to trade with the warring nations • Warring nations must respect ourneutrality • Freedom of the seasmust be preserved • German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality
Effects of Allied blockade • 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers • 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million • Allied trade • Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period • WWI transformed the US from a debtorto a creditornation**** (so, we’re a int’l superpower, right?)
SUBMARINE WARFARE • The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. • Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats • Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
U-Boats • Two types • small subs with a crew of 24 • larger subs with a crew of 60 • 44 by 1918 • By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.