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Settler Colonies in North America

Settler Colonies in North America

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Settler Colonies in North America

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  1. Settler Colonies in North America • Spanish towns, forts, missions • east and west coast of N. America Emily Carr, McMichael Collection • displaced by 17C French, English, Dutch mariners • permanent colonies in North America • France: Nova Scotia (1604), Quebec (1608) • England: Jamestown (1607), Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) • Netherlands: New Amsterdam (1623) • English take it in 1664, rename it New York • greater levels of self-government than Spanish and Portuguese colonies

  2. European empires and colonies in the Americas c.1700

  3. silver changed economies potatoes, corn tomatoes, beans, cacao, peanuts, squash tobacco disease observation of new way of life – challenges to ideas/beliefs held Colombian Exchange:from Americas to Europe

  4. Colombian Exchangefrom Europe to Americas • wheat, grapevines, sugarcane • cattle, horses, pigs • new plants • disease Read: Henry HobhouseSeeds of Change Alfred Crosby Ecological Imperialism Jared Diamond Guns, Germs, and Steel

  5. Globally Interconnected Furs: Britain grabs from FN to China Bullion: Britain grab from Iberians to China tea, silk direct & via India

  6. Relations with Indigenous Peoplesshaped by: • organization of North American peoples • Protestant view of land use and industry • increasing number of Europeans • all want land: 150,000 from England in the 17C • result: conflict misunderstandings ‘negotiated’ treaties military conflict frequent devastating epidemic disease

  7. North American Populations

  8. North American Societies • higher ratio of French, English female migrants than in South America • social stigma attached to relationships with natives, African slaves • fur traders have relationships with North American native women métis Gabriel Dumont (1836-1906) Red River Rebellion (NW) 1885

  9. Indentured labourersWho might have ended up on a ship, and unable to pay?

  10. Roots of arguments for change Continental radicalism (not) Labour radicals (ish) Political challenge Political philosophers Whig challenge yes, but needed a model for change respectable, outside politics ….

  11. What does radical change look like? Repeal of Test and Corporations Acts (1828) qualified non-Conformists gained the right to formal politics i.e. Joseph Storrs Fry, Quaker, (Bristol, 1767-1835) Catholic Emancipation Act (1829) most public offices opened to Catholics Reform Act (1832) Parliamentary reform Regularized franchise rights granted more middle class men voting rights (increased to 7% adults)

  12. Second Reform Act (1867) Representation of the People Act • replaced Liberal proposal voted down 1866 • gained w.c. support for Conservatives • married artisans, respectable w.c., male ‘heads of households’ (lodging worth £10) • 2.5 million or 1/3 male adults – many fewer in Ireland Not women

  13. And subsequently Further Liberal Reform: disestablishment of the CofE in Ireland (1868) Irish Land Act (1870) Education Act Civil Service Act Military Acts (1871) religious tests ended Oxford and Cambridge (1871) trade unions, secret ballot, reformed judiciary (1870s) 1880s: franchise to rural heads of households 5.6/36mill election reform; redistribution of seats & 90% elected 1832: qualified women in local elections, and political volunteers

  14. Less respectable radicals:worker’s find their voice Luddites history artisans, not workers history of protest action breaking burning fighting a murder meaning fear demand for rights political

  15. Swing Riots – not only urban issues There were 1,976 trials in total. Of the men tried: Sentenced to death 252 Executed 19 Life transportation 233 Transported 505 Imprisoned 644 Fined 7 Whipped 1 Acquitted/bound over800

  16. And who would have that vote? In 1820: 516 000 of 21 000 000 (2.5%) men property owners members CofE mostly English although others participate

  17. Witham parish workhouse (2002), 1714 Birmingham workhouse (1860s)‘archway of tears’

  18. Impact of early-modern European Empires French and Indian Wars (1754-63) • expensive, extensive • overlapped with Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) • conflict in Europe, India • British victory ensured global dominance North American prosperity

  19. To pay: increased taxation in 1760s on the British side • tax burden falls to the colonies • Sugar Act (1764) • Stamp Act (1765) • Quartering Act (1765) (Housing British Troops) • Tea Act (1773)

  20. Britain: • strong central govt. • navy, army • loyalist population The American Revolution • Colonies: • logistic advantage • popular support • support of British rivals • imaginative military leadership • 1776 Independence • treaty at Peace of Paris, 1783 • recognition of American independence • 1787 US constitution drafted • political and legal equality for men of property

  21. Swing to the east Losing the American colonies: pride took a hit but Caribbean worth more Geopolitically and fiscally: south pacific south and east Asia Africa