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Individuals

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  1. Individuals Dependent Independent And Other Variables

  2. Displacement Mere presence of mass media has a potential displacement effect; each medium is an alternative that displaces other activities

  3. Processing Styles Over time, particular media may lead to preferences in processing styles. TV generation is much more visual.

  4. Media can displace previous modes of learning.

  5. Dependent Variables • Cognitive: Knowledge/beliefs • Affective: Moods/evaluations • Conative/overt behavior: intentions/actions

  6. Cognitive • Knowledge is information confirmed by others and accepted as an accurate representation of reality. Give me examples • Beliefs: some evidence of consuming single event BUT most cognitive effects are linked to patterns of media use. • First Order—demographic; quantifiable • Second Order—broad opinion

  7. Cognitive • Primary influence on societal not personal judgements.

  8. Affective • Media effects are usually much greater in area of cognition; but increasing evidence of temporary and enduring effects on mood and evaluations. • Mood states Zilmann (1988) people use media to diminish the intensity of bad moods & to perpetuate and intensify good moods (selective attention)

  9. Affective • Poor TV! Heavy users described life and moods less fulfilling than did light users. • Compensation Hypothesis: media used to compensate for social impoverishment. • Buffering Hypothesis: people partially protected from loneliness from heavy media consumption. • TV more likely to affect single, elderly

  10. Affective • TV increases family time together but diminishes interaction. • Evaluations are considered the link to overt behaviors; information or lack thereof influences our attitudes and hence our actions.

  11. Behavioral • Simply put: • Media can affect people’s intentions to act (People’s Choice—reinforcement) and subsequent overt actions. • Examples include voting, volunteering. • More on individuals patterns later.

  12. Independent Variables • Media/channel differences • Print size, type face, etc • Movie sequence • Black and white Vs color • Colors in advertising/packaging • Poor TV! Newspaper readers were considered more knowledgeable of politics

  13. Independent Variables • Media Use • Exposure—time used; frequency • Preference—media favorites • Reliance—replaces leisure or learning from other sources • Attention—active selection process in choosing content among message across time

  14. Independent Variables • Framing—looking at models that represent alternative portrayals with differing effects on audiences. • Conservative Vs liberal news • Thematic or episodic • Causal relationships; responsibility

  15. Other Variables • Social Learning Theory holds that aggressive modes of response are acquired either through direct experience of indirectly through observation of aggressive models. • Selective Exposure—look for and use media to reinforce existing attitudes, values, beliefs; applied to perception and retention as well.