Download
ch 39 notes n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ch. 39 Notes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ch. 39 Notes

Ch. 39 Notes

129 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Ch. 39 Notes

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Ch. 39 Notes “Digestive and Excretory Systems”

  2. I. Digestion-Process of breaking down food into molecules the body can use. • A. Functions of the digestive system • 1. Takes in food • 2. Break down food • 3. Gets rid of undigested molecules and wastes

  3. B. Parts of the digestive system • 1. Mouth-begins mechanical and chemical digestion. • Saliva-moistens and lubricates food • Amylase-enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of carbohydrates.

  4. 2. Pharynx-area in the back of the mouth that serves as a passage from the mouth to the esophagus. • Epiglottis-flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking.

  5. 3. Esophagus-food tube connecting the mouth to stomach. • Food is moved down the esophagus by peristalsis; series of wavelike contractions.

  6. 4. Stomach-temporarily stores food mechanically and chemically digests food. Gastric juice made up of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin break down proteins. Mucus coats stomach lining.

  7. 5. Small intestine-Digestion continues as secretions are received from several organs: • A. liver-secretes bile, which breaks down fats. • B. gallbladder-stores bile • C. pancreas-secretes lipase, which digests fats. • After digestion, most absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream occurs in this organ.

  8. 6. Large Intestine-(colon) undigestable wastes move into this organ. • Bacteria in the colon aid in producing vitamins B and K.

  9. 7. Liver-not an organ of the digestive system, but aids in digestion by releasing bile, maintaining bloodsugar levels, and detoxifies poisons, such as ammonia which is converted to a less toxic form call urea. Bile-bitter yellow or green fluid secreted by the liver, made of water cholesterol, bile salts, and bile pigments.

  10. Digestive System

  11. II. Excretion-the process of eliminating metabolic wastes. • A. Organs involved in excretion: • 1. lungs-excrete CO2 and water vapor • 2. Skin-excretes wastes in the form of sweat. • 3. Kidneys-excretes nitrogenous wastes, salts, water, and other substances in the form of urine. Kidneys regulate the amount of water and salts in the blood of plasma.

  12. a. nephrons-microscopic blood filtering tubes in the kidney. Three phases occur as the blood flows through a nephron: Filtration, reabsorption, secretion.

  13. b. urine-liquid waste formed from water, urea, and salts. c. ureters-tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. d. urethra-tube through which urine exits the body.

  14. B. Damage to the Kidneys • 1. Kidneys play a role in maintaining homeostasis, so disease of the kidneys can be life threatening. • 2. Most common of kidney failure are infection, diabetes, high blood pressure, and damage from the body’s immune system. • 3. If 1 kidney is lost, the other may enlarge and do the work of both. • 4. If both kidneys fail, there are only 2 treatment options: • Dialysis • Transplants