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Computer Fundamentals

Computer Fundamentals

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Computer Fundamentals

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  1. Computer Fundamentals MDCS 134 Lecture 1

  2. What is a computer? A computer is an electronic machine which can accept data in a certain form, process the data and give the results of the process on a specific format as information.

  3. Where can computers be found and what are they used for ? • Schools • Teaching, reference, students records • Homes • Internet, games, records • Hospitals • Patients record, • Offices • Word process, database, accounting.

  4. Four basic operations of a computer • Input • Processing • Output • Storage

  5. Input Input devices allow you to enter data into the computer. Primary devises: • Keyboard • Mouse Other input devices: • Touch screen • Modem • Scanner • Voice recognition system

  6. Processing Central Processing Unit (CPU): Is the brain of the computer. It contains the electronic circuits that cause the computer to follow instruction. Its function is to execute program instruction and coordinate the activities of all the other units CPU Contains three parts: • Arithmetic Logic Unit – ALU • Memory • Control Unit

  7. Arithmetic Logic Unit Is where the intelligence of the computer is located. It perform mathematical calculation ( +, -, ) and logical operation ( and , or ). Example: • To multiply 2 x 4 the computer would add 2 + 2+2+ 2. • Make decision by determining is a number is greater , less, or equal to the other number.

  8. Memory It holds the instructions and data which are currently being processed. Types of memory: • RAM ( Random Access Memory) • Temporary memory. • Displays the information you are working on. • Information is lost when the computer is turned off. • ROM ( Read Only Memory) • Permanent memory • Contains instructions needed by the processor such as start up, shutdown, and placing a character on the screen. • installed in you computer by manufacturer and cannot be altered.

  9. Control Unit Directs information to the proper places in your computer , such as calculation of information by the ALU unit or store data or print data.

  10. Output It makes information you input available for you to view and use • Monitors • Printers

  11. Storage Secondary storage devices are used to store instructions and data when they are not being used in a memory. • Hard disk • Floppy disk • CD-RAM • Zip disks