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Internationalizing Curricula, Campuses, and Student Experiences in Community Colleges

Internationalizing Curricula, Campuses, and Student Experiences in Community Colleges. Gretchen K. Carroll, J.D., M.B.A. Professor of Management & Leadership Director of Atlantis Project Owens Community College. Fast Facts…….

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Internationalizing Curricula, Campuses, and Student Experiences in Community Colleges

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  1. Internationalizing Curricula, Campuses, and Student Experiences in Community Colleges Gretchen K. Carroll, J.D., M.B.A. Professor of Management & Leadership Director of Atlantis Project Owens Community College

  2. Fast Facts…… • Community Colleges make up 42% of all higher education institutions and enroll 40% of students nation wide. • There are 1,195 regionally accredited community colleges. • With 11.5 million students, credit and non-credit, community colleges play a crucial role in preparing students to become productive members of a global workforce. • Close to 100,000 international students attend community colleges, about 39% of all international undergraduate students in the United States.

  3. Community College Demographics • The Average age of community college students is 29, but 43% are 21 or younger. • 60% of community college students are female. • 35% of community college students are minorities. • 39% are first generation college students.

  4. 5,776 community college students studied abroad in 2003/04, less than 1% of all community college students in the US. Community College study abroad generally mirrors study abroad at all institutions. 85% of community college students who do study abroad are in Latin America or Europe. The overwhelming majority of community college study abroad students (73%) are on short-term programs.

  5. In comparison to other institutional types…. • Slightly more females from community colleges study abroad (68%) than overall (66%). • Slightly fewer Caucasian students from community colleges (81%) study abroad than overall (84%). Hispanic-Americans make up the 2nd largest group at community colleges (10% versus 5% overall). • California community colleges predominate among the leading 20 community colleges study abroad institutions.

  6. 73% of community college students that did study abroad, did so for fewer than 8 weeks. • The American Association of Community Colleges actively advocates an international role for community colleges in all dimensions of worldwide education and training. • There is increasing support that other countries are reflecting a heightened interest in adopting the community college model. (Bologna Agreement)

  7. In 2001-2002 ACE Compiled an Internationalization Index • A random sample of 552 community college presidents were surveyed (52%) of which 233 (43%) responded. • Asked a variety of questions in six major categories that comprised the index.

  8. Articulated Commitment Academic Offerings Organizational Infrastructure External funding Institutional Investment in Faculty International students and student programs. Six Key Areas of International Involvement

  9. Dismal report card… • 61% received an overall internationalization score of low • 33% scored in the medium range • 5% in the medium to high range • 0% in the high range

  10. Of the community colleges considered to be “highly active” • 65% highlighted international education in recruitment literature. • 75% had programs for students to study abroad without delaying graduation. • 66% administered study abroad programs for undergraduate credit. • 92% had an office for international education programs.

  11. Study abroad programs • Offered by 1/3 of the community colleges surveyed, but less than 10% administered international field study, internships, or service opportunities. • Even in the highly active institutions, only 2% of students study abroad annually.

  12. Investment in Faculty • Although faculty involvement is key to internationalization of the curricula and the student experience, the majority of community colleges scored “low” or “zero” on institutional investment in the faculty. • General lack of support for faculty and for opportunities to be involved in international education.

  13. Investment in student programs Very few, less than 16%, provide funding for studying or working abroad programs Even fewer, less than 2%, earmarked funds for students to travel abroad to meetings or conferences.

  14. Internal and External Funding is Crucial to Study Abroad • Community colleges that highlight international education in the recruitment literature are more likely to offer study abroad for credit and have more students that study abroad. • The number of students that study abroad was strongly related to college ear marked funds

  15. Should community colleges be advancing short cycle study abroad and internationalizing campuses and curricula? Absolutely!!!!!!!!!

  16. Why aren’t they? • Institutional barriers including: Not a strategic priority, funding, broad based missions focused on “local” rather than “global” community, lack of faculty involvement/support… • Interesting study by California Colleges for International Education (CCIE) found that institutional barriers, rather than student desire, prohibited community college students from studying abroad.

  17. Institutional barriers prevent students from studying abroad. • Although the prevailing beliefs by administrators, faculty and staff are that student personal barriers prohibit students from studying abroad. • Data collected from students, contradicts many popular beliefs including the inability of students to afford study abroad programs, conflicting work and family obligations, and cultural capital that allows the student to see themselves on a study abroad program.

  18. Program Costs • Students agree that costs are important, yet 70% of surveyed students would not let finances alone deter them from study abroad. • Significant percentage of students utilize financial aid for their study abroad. • Students need significant financial assistance is needed to help with both direct and in-direct costs of the programs. • The cost for a summer program ranges from $180 to $5,000, and from $3,000 to $8,900 for a semester long program.

  19. Work and Family Obligations • Students surveyed indicated that although most had part-time or full-time jobs, they nonetheless, would be willing and able to study abroad. • Colleges should not assume that students are unable to study abroad because of work and family commitments. • To accommodate the needs of working students and students with families, institutions should examine the possibility of making available both short-term and semester study abroad options for their students.

  20. Cultural Capital • There is a sense that community college students do not want to travel abroad and are committed to their local neighborhoods. • Yet, Fifty-seven percent of responding students indicated that they have previously traveled to one to three other countries, many on a regular basis.

  21. Institutional Funding & Program Availability • Research confirmed that the predominant issue preventing community colleges from offering Study Abroad is a noted lack of secure institutional funding that offers study abroad options to the students. • More than two thirds of community colleges that offer study abroad, receive no funding to support these programs.

  22. Funding negatively impacts staffing • Community colleges frequently do not have full-time staffing and many do not even have a recognized office that helps to make a presence for study abroad on campus. • Lack of infrastructure prevents colleges from offering programs, which in turn severely effect students’ access to such programs.

  23. Some Bright Spots…………C.C. Success Stories • Anne Arundel Community College (MD) • College of Lake County (IL) • Crowder College (MO) • Essex County Community College (NJ) • Glendale Community College (CA) • Harford Community College (MD) • Maricopa Community College District (AZ) • North Shore Community College (MA) • Tidewater Community College (VA)

  24. EU- US Atlantis Project • Joint projects of the Department of Education and the European Commission. • Supports transatlantic cooperation between institutions of higher education in US and EU, both 2 and 4 year institutions. • Objectives: facilitation of student and faculty exchange, development of joint/dual degree programs, exchange of best practices.

  25. University of Toledo & Owens Community College Atlantis Project • Response to the Bologna Agreement • Two international partners- International University College (Bulgaria) & LEIDO (Netherlands) • Focus in on the role of short-cycle higher education in the US & EU in addressing social and economic needs. • Ultimate goal – creation of a dual degree/certificate program between OCC and EU partner institutions.

  26. Hosting Three International Conferences • June 2009- Golden Sands, Bulgaria Focus is recognition and accreditation of SCHE programs and the alignment of educational systems to facilitate student exchange and meet global workforce needs. • October 2009- Toledo, Ohio Focus is the role of SCHE in economic & community development. • June 2010- Amsterdam, The Netherlands Focus is the contribution of SCHE in creating ladders in life long learning.

  27. Final thoughts • Four major recommendations for community colleges serious about internationalizing campuses, curricula, and short cycle study abroad.

  28. 1) Philosophical Change Community Colleges need to understand and accept the benefits of internationalizing campus, curriculum, and study abroad programs for their students and community. Perhaps it needs to be strongly encouraged by college and program accrediting bodies. • Support needs to be articulated in college mission statements, strategic plans and in college budget. • Faculty need to be encouraged through tenure and rank systems to organize and lead study abroad programs.

  29. 2) Economic Change • The benefits of study abroad outweigh the cost of implementing programs. The benefits are not only for students, but for participating faculty and the community at large. • In too many colleges, faculty and administrators continue to view study abroad programs as nonessential educational activities, and therefore offer limited support. • A line-item in the college general funds needs to be secured for the development and implementation of study abroad programs. • Need a grant office to assist faculty in writing and securing grant money. Potential sources are the US Department of Education, the US Department of State or the US Agency for International Development. Available grants are listed and continually updated on the AACC website.

  30. 3) Programmatic Change • Colleges need to develop a centrally located office where students, faculty and community know where to obtain information on study abroad. • A staff and operating budget needs to be in place to support this office. • Links with academic departments and programs, college counseling services, student advising and financial aid need to be secured.

  31. 4) Policy Implications • Community College policy needs to identify how to establish programs, define faculty selection, advertise programs, adhere to other legal, health and safety issues that are affiliated with study abroad programs, a defined risk management program to better serve the students and the colleges and secure long-range planning. • Colleges must develop broad-based coalitions with consortia, such as the MSU CIBER and CCIE, to help support and provide resources for internationalizing the college.

  32. Thank you! Questions?

  33. References • American Association of Community Colleges http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Pages/default.aspx • Green, M.F. & Siaya, L. (2005). Measuring internationalization at community colleges. American Council on Education; Washington, D.C. • Open Doors 2005: Report on International Educational Exchange • Raby, R. (2009). Community college study abroad: Making study abroad accessible to all students.http://www.iienetwork.org/?p=CommunityCollege • Tidewater Community College http://www.theglobalcommunitycollege.org/howtosustain/casestudies/C-CS4.pdf

  34. References • http://atlantis.utoledo.edu • MSU- CIBER http://globalEDGE.msu.edu

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