The Revolutionary WarResource Unit Heather Borchers Crystal Brooks Chiara Brown Heather Look
Table of Contents • Introduction • Content • Objectives • Activities • Evaluation • Instructional Resources
Introduction • General Theme • The Revolutionary War was a very important time in American history. It was a time when freedom and liberty were ideals to be obtained. Not only is this unit a valuable resource for our students, but it also allows them to better understand how America was founded.
Introduction (cont.) • This resource unit identifies: • Important men and women of all cultures and social classes who played pivotal roles in changing our country. • Important battles that changed the façade of this nation. • Significant dates and events that impacted the future of the nation.
Introduction (cont.) • This resource unit is directed towards eighth grade students. • Standards: History • Indicators: • 3. Identify and explain the resources of conflict which led to the American Revolution, with emphasis on the perspectives of the patriots, loyalists, neutral colonists, and the British concerning: • a. The Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, the Tea Act, and the Intolerable Acts • b. The Boston Tea Party, the boycotts, the Sons of Liberty, and petitions and appeals to Parliament
Introduction (cont.) • 4. Explain the results of important developments of the American Revolution including • a. A declaration of American independence • b. Character and significance of the military struggle in the North in the early years of the war and the shift of the battle to the South after 1779 • c. Creation of state constitutions • d. Impacts on women, African-Americans and American Indians. • 5. Explain major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic under the Articles of Confederation including • a. Maintaining national security • b. Creating a stable economic system • c. Dealing with war debts • d. Collecting revenue • e. Defining the authority of the central government.
Introduction (cont.) • 6. Explain the challenges in writing and ratifying the U.S. Constitution including • a. Issues debated during the convention resulting in compromises (i.e., the Great Compromise, the Three-Fifths Compromise and the compromise over the slave trade) • b. The Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate • c. The debate over a Bill of Rights. • 7. Describe the actions taken to build one country from 13 states including: • a. The precedents established by George Washington, including the cabinet and a two-term presidency • b. Alexander Hamilton's actions to create a financially strong country, including the creation of a national bank • c. The establishment of an independent federal court system
American Revolution assembly Battle of Bunker Hill Boston Tea Party Tea Act boycott Committees of Correspondence delegate First Continental Congress Intolerable Acts liberty militia minutemen Rebel Repeal Sons of Liberty Stamp Act town meeting Boston Massacre U.S. Constitution Redcoats Thomas Paine Molly Pitcher Loyalists Tariff Paul Revere Samuel Adams George Washington John Hancock Lexington Concord Yorktown Saratoga Benedict Arnold Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson Slavery James Madison Great Britain Townshend Act Ben Franklin John Burgoyne Charles Cornwallis Thomas Gage Patrick Henry Crispus Attucks Betsy Ross Content
Objectives • Students will recognize the impact that the Revolutionary War had on America and the lives of the people. • Students will be able to identify and explain the different British taxes and laws implemented on the colonists. • Students will be able to define all vocabulary words. • Students will order the events of the Revolutionary War by creating a timeline. • Students will compare and contrast the major battles and the impact that each of those battles had on the war’s end result.
Objectives (cont.) • Students will differentiate between the lives of loyalists and patriots. • Students will be able to relate the rights that the colonists had then compared to the rights that we have today as citizens. • Students will be able to identify geographical locations of important events. • Students will summarize the events that led to the development of the Constitution. • Students will discover the individuals that played important roles in the Revolutionary War period. • Students will identify the role of African Americans in America during this time period and the effects that the war had on them.
Activities • Students will make a timeline of the events leading up to the Revolutionary War. • Students will write a newspaper article on an event that took place during the revolutionary period. Examples might be: Introduction of the Stamp Act, The Boston Massacre, The Boston Tea Party, the Battle at Bunker Hill, and Paul Revere’s Ride. Many topics can be chosen. • Students will need to create a journal chronicling five days of a journey on the road to battle. When writing the journal entry, the student must pick one battle during the Revolutionary War and write about the environmental obstacles that they faced in this region. This account should include the type of weather that was faced, the terrain encountered and any significant bodies of water in the region that affected the soldiers’ travels.
Activities (cont.) • Students will investigate the effects of the Revolution on the African American population. Then, acting as an African American (free or enslaved) during this time period, write a one page diary entry describing how America’s independence will affect them. • Students will make a “then” and “now” chart. In this chart students will list how goods were produced, distributed, and consumed in the late 1700’s in comparison to how they are “now.” What are the differences and similarities? • Students will discover George Washington’s role during the war using the internet, books, and other resources. They will then play the Solve the Mystery Game: http://www.georgewashington.si.edu/kids/portrait.html
Activities (cont.) • Students will read an excerpt from "Nancy's Story: 1765", a book about what effect the Stamp Act had on Americans. Students will learn about the Stamp Act and see it from a child's perspective. • Students will choose a famous person during this time. They can choose a famous British person, a patriot, a loyalist, or any other influential people. They can choose to be a famous man or woman. They will study that person and then prepare a five minute presentation. Students will act as if they are that person and introduce themselves to the class. They can dress up as that person if they would like to. They need to have at least one prop that they can hold that symbolizes that person. • Students will put Benedict Arnold on trial for treason. There will be a judge, jury, witnesses, and lawyers for both sides, and, of course, someone to play the role of Arnold. • Students will produce a graphic organizer for the important information concerning the development of the Constitution. The organizer will include important dates along with important people involved and any other appropriate information.
Evaluation Sample Test • The United States won its independence from: A. SpainB. FranceC. Britain • The Revolutionary War lasted from: A. 1775-1777 B. 1775-1783. C. 1776-1779 • These famous words - "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal ... " are part of: A. The Constitution of the United States B. The Bill of Rights C. The Declaration of Independence
Evaluation (cont.) • The people who opposed the Revolution were called: A. Loyalists. B. Whigs. C. Republicans. • Freedom was promised to slaves if they would fight: A. In the British army.B. In the American army.C. Neither. • To win the Revolution, America needed the help of: A. The Hessians. B. The Indians. C. The French.
Evaluation (cont.) • _____________ published "Common Sense," a pamphlet that helped to stir up a feeling for independence among Americans. • Benedict Arnold served the American army with distinction before he was branded as a __________. • ____________ was a reputed protest leader and was the first person killed in the Boston Massacre.
Evaluation (cont.) • Compare and contrast the views of a patriot and the views of a loyalist. Give at least two characteristics for each viewpoint. • Name one of the Acts that the British enforced on the colonists. Explain what the act stated and explain the effects on the colonists.
Instructional Resources Student Resources • Liberty: The American Revolution: Road to Revolution Quiz • http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/road.html • Students will test their knowledge about the American Revolution, and see if they can navigate their way to independence. Every correct answer gets them closer to liberty! • The Fight for Independence DVD • By putting themselves in the colonists’ shoes, students begin to understand why the colonists, who came to this country for religious and economic freedom, felt compelled to engage in a war with England for their independence. This program clearly illustrates the precipitants to the Revolutionary War and gets kids thinking about how they would have reacted if they had lived during colonial times. • Liberty’s Kids • http://www.libertyskids.com/ • The Liberty's Kids website includes a broad range of entertaining educational activities for kids. The website is based on the Liberty’s Kids TV series.
Instructional Resources (cont.) • George Washington National Treasure: Portrait for Kids • http://www.georgewashington.si.edu/kids/portrait.html • Students will use clues to help solve a make-believe mystery! Using a special spyglass tool, they will uncover hidden layers of a painting and learn fascinating facts about the portrait along the way. • The Road to Independence • http://library.thinkquest.org/11683/SimWar3000.html • This game is a simulation of the amount of money that goes into putting a war on. Students will have to pay for food, ammunition, and troops. This game should give the students an idea of how expensive a war is. • Read-Aloud Plays: Revolutionary War by Dallas Murphy • These exciting, fact-based plays will revolutionize the way your students learn about history! They'll gain new insights into America's fight for independence as they read plays about the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre, Tories and Loyalists, the Battle of Yorktown, and Crossing the Delaware.
Instructional Resources (cont.) • Nancy's Story: 1765 by Joan Lowry Nixon • Virginians are protesting the Stamp Act and Nancy Geddy is afraid the uncertain times will harm her father's business. And if that worry is not enough, Nancy's stepmother is making her life miserable. Grades 4-6, 165 pages. • Magic Tree House #22: Revolutionary War on Wednesday by Mary Pope Osborne. • The Magic Tree House whisks Jack and Annie back to Colonial America. They arrive just as General George Washington is planning the crossing of the Delaware River. Before they know it, Jack and Annie are in a boat with the Father of Our Country as history is made. • During the field trip to Washington DC, students will make a stop at Valley Forge to discover the lives of the soldiers in the hard winter times.
Instructional Resources (cont.) • George Washington Crossing the Delaware –painting • Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, American, 1816-1868George Washington Crossing the Delaware, 1851Oil on Canvas; 12 2/5 x 21 1/4 in. (378.5 x 647.7 cm)Gift of John S. Kennedy, 1897 (97.34) • Music of the Revolutionary War • http://www.cvesd.k12.ca.us/finney/paulvm/h5_musicfrmset.html • Music served a useful part in the Revolutionary War. Songs were written for different reasons. Often they were used to help make people feel excited and emotional about their cause. Revolutionary music was a good way to express feelings, make fun of the enemy, and forget the terrible realities of war.
InstructionalResources (cont.) • Events Leading Up to War (2004) DVD • An in-depth video chronicling the events leading up to the Revolutionary War for grades 4-8. • Revolutionary War Video Quiz VHS • This is a quality video that contains the important content knowledge of the Revolutionary War with an effective built-in quiz format. • The Patriot Movie DVD • Benjamin Martin is a South Carolina planter who is still haunted by his notoriously brutal past as a soldier in the French and Indian War. When the American Revolution comes, he chooses not to fight for the Continental Army because he wants to protect his family. When Martin is faced with his family being in danger, he comes up with a way to fight and protect his family. • Liberty American Revolution 1775-83 by Columbia Games Board Game • Liberty is a fast-playing game covering the American Revolution from 1775-1783. British, American, and French forces are included and the role of the Indians and Navies is depicted. The unique problems faced by each side become clear in this exciting game.
Instructional Resources (cont.) Teacher Resources • Teacher Corner • http://www.theteacherscorner.net/thematicunits/american.htm • This website contains a plethora of lesson ideas for Revolutionary War units. • Houghton Mifflin English: Graphic Organizers • http://www.eduplace.com/kids/hme/k_5/graphorg/ • This website has many ideas and templates for graphic organizers that teachers can use in the classroom. • History Central: A Teacher’s Guide to the Revolutionary War • http://www.historycentral.com/Revolt/Teachers.html • This teacher website contains a wealth of discussion items and concepts that are relevant to the Revolutionary War. • 1776 by David McCullough • This book for adults provides the military aspect of the Revolutionary War. It contains a high reading level, but teachers can use this book to aid in giving more information to their students that is not in their textbooks.