Declarative Sentences • Declarative sentences are statements. They do not have to be true. A declarative sentence always ends with a period. • Examples: • I am sitting on a tack. • The duck ate my sandwich.
Interrogative Sentences • Interrogative sentences are questions. Think of interrogating someone. An interrogative sentence always ends in a question mark. • Examples: • Where did you put the frog? • Why is there a sheep in my bed?
Imperative Sentences • Imperative sentences are commands. Think of imperial (related to royalty). They give commands. An imperative sentence may end in an exclamation point or period. The invisible subject is you. • Examples: • Get the sheep out of my bed! (The subject is you.) • Bring me my tea. (The subject is you.)
Exclamatory Sentences • Exclamatory sentences are exclamations but not interjections. An exclamatory sentence always ends in an exclamation point. • Examples: • The sheep are out! • How wonderful it is!
Simple subjects and simple predicates • The simple subject is the performer of the sentence, the one doing the action. • The simple predicate is what the subject does or is. • Example: • The sheep ate my hat. • Sheep is the simple subject, the one performing. • What did the sheep do? • Ate is the simple predicate, what the sheep did. • The simple subject and simple predicate are called deep structure, the foundation of a sentence.
Simple predicates • Simple predicates are always verbs. They may be action verbs or verbs of being. Words like is, are, am, were, was, and will be are always verbs. • Example: • The sheep is in the bathtub. • The sheep is the performer, the simple subject. • The simple predicate is is, what the subject is.
Compound subjects • Compound anything is more than one thing combined with another. • Compound subjects are two or more simple subjects used in a sentence and tied together with the word and, but, or. • Example: • Lilly and Larry ran away. • Lilly or Larry will come back. • Lilly, but not Larry, came back. • Lilly and Larry are both simple subjects in this sentence.
Compound predicates • Compound predicates are two action verbs, two simple predicates used in a sentence. • Example: • Larry skipped and sang. • Lilly jumped and screamed.
Simple Sentences • Simple sentences are complete thoughts. They have a simple subject and a simple predicate and can stand alone. A simple sentence is also called an independent clause. • Example: • The sheep are in my bed. • Simple sentences can have compound subjects and/or compound predicates. They are still simple sentences if they have one complete thought. • The sheep and the cows are in my bed. • The sheep rolled and tossed in my bed.
Compound Sentences • Compound sentences are really two simple sentences tied together with coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). To remember these conjunctions, think FAN BOYS. A comma is placed before the conjunction. • Example: • Sentence 1: The sheep are in my bed. • Sentence 2: The cows are in your bed. • Compound sentence: • The sheep are in my bed, but the cows are in your bed. • It is also possible to place a semicolon between the two sentences: The sheep are in my bed; the cows are in your bed.
Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions are adverbs that act as conjunctions to form dependent clauses. • They can be one or more words. • They can refer to time (after, before, when, while, since, until), cause and effect (because, since, now that, as, in order that, so), opposition (although, though, even though, while), and condition (if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, in case of). • Subordinating conjunctions can turn a simple sentence or independent clause into a dependent clause. • Examples: • The sheep climbed in my bed. • After the sheep climbed in my bed, I fell out. • Although the sheep climbed in my bed, I managed to sleep. • Because the sheep climbed in my bed, I fell out. • Unless the sheep climb in my bed, I’ll be able to sleep.
Complex Sentences • Complex sentences are a dependent clause (incomplete thought) combined with an independent clause (complete thought). Dependent clauses need an independent clause to make them clear. • Example: • Dependent clause: Because the sheep are in my bed • Independent clause: I can’t sleep tonight. • Complex sentence (with dependent clause at the front): Because the sheep are in my bed, I can’t sleep tonight. (Notice that the introductory clause is followed by a comma.) • Complex sentence (with dependent clause at the end): I can’t sleep tonight because the sheep are in my bed. (Notice that you don’t need the comma anymore because the dependent clause is at the end.)
Final thoughts on sentences • Make sure you start all sentences with capital letters. • Make sure you have correct end punctuation at the end of each sentence. • Make sure each sentence is a complete thought and not a fragment. • Make sure you capitalize proper nouns. • Varying your sentence types and sentence openings is a good way to make writing more interesting for the reader.