ATC Phraseology English as She Is Spoken DPEMeeting
Communication & Runway Safety
Language of Aviation What thoughts come to mind? • English being the ICAO – prescribed official language of global aviation. • The peculiar jargon unique to our preferred pastime.
Language of Aviation The wonder and woe of language, though, is that even two people from the same cultural background — or a single household — can hear the same word or phrase and reach a different conclusion as to its meaning.
“The single, most important concept in pilot-controller communications is understanding” AIM, Chapter 4,Section 2, para 4-2-1b
Tennerife (in the Canary Islands) 583 Fatalities
14 Fatalities Quincy, IL November 11, 1996
“English as She is Spoken” Words and Language Movie trivia question
MOVIE TRIVIA QUESTION? “WHAT WE’VE GOT HERE IS FAILURE TO COMMUNICATE!”
What you say. How you say it. When you say it. Where you say it. Some facts about the English language.
Consider these facts: • Over 171,000 words. • About 3X as many as during Shakespeare’s Time.
Consider these facts: Over half of the books and most of the email in the world are in English. One in every seven people on the planet can speak English.
There is no egg in eggplant, nor pine in pineapple, or ham in hamburger. Sweet meats are candy, while sweet breads, which aren’t sweet, are meat.
WORDS THAT SOUND THE SAME;ARE SPELLED THE SAME;PRONOUNCED THE SAME; BUT…. HAVE TOTALLY DIFFERENT MEANINGS!
Noun or Verb? He could lead if he could get the lead out. The farm was used to produceproduce. The insurance was invalid for the invalid. After a number of injections, my jaw got number.
If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? Why are boxing rings square?
If the teacher taught, why isn’t it true that the preacher praught? If a vegetarian eats vegetables.– What does a humanitarian eat?
IF OLIVE OIL IS MADE FROM OLIVES. WHAT IS BABY OIL MADE FROM?
WHY DO THEY CALL THEM APARTMENTS…? …WHEN THEY ARE ALL TOGETHER!
People drive on a parkway… yet park in a driveway. We have noses that run… and feet that smell.
Words that are opposites, but when used in certain sentences mean the same. How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same?
IF BUTTON AND UNBUTTON, AND TIE AND UNTIE ARE OPPOSITES. WHY ARE LOOSEN AND UNLOOSEN THE SAME?
Words that mean the same, but are opposite in meaning……depending on where or when you say it.
If you say “I apologize or “ I am sorry”. They both mean the same thing…right? What about talking to a widow at a funeral??
Why are wise men and wise guys opposites? Overlook and oversee. Shouldn’t they mean the same? While “quite a lot” and “quite a few are the same thing. .
Why do you trust all of your money to someone who’s a broker? Why is that when the stars are out they are “visible”, but when lights are out they are “invisible”?
QUESTION? • You are given the following ATC clearance: • N1234 right there, turn left. • or • N1234 make a left turn right there. • What word makes this clearance confusing and why? ANSWER: Right
“I am”, is reputedly the shortest sentence in the English language. Two words, two syllables, three letters one space, and one punctuation mark. What is the longest sentence? I do. What word makes this quip funny?
WEBSTER’S DICTIONARY • Does not indicate a difference between the meaning for the word “COMPLETED” and “FINISHED”
IF YOU MARRY THE RIGHT PERSON YOUR LIFE IS SAID TO BE “COMPLETE” IF YOU MARRY THE WRONG PERSON YOUR LIFE IS “FINISHED” IF YOUR MARRIED TO THE RIGHT PERSON BUT CAUGHT WITH THE WRONG PERSON YOUR LIFE IS COMPLETELY FINISHED
You don’t have change for a five, do you (?) (!) YES, I DO NOT HAVE CHANGE FOR A FIVE! BUT HOW DID YOU KNOW THAT I DIDN’T! Statement or question?
THE ACCOUNTANT AT THE MUSIC STORE RECORDS RECORDS OF THE RECORDS
Diary of a Pre-Scholl Teacher My five-year old students are learning to read. Yesterday one of them pointed at a picture in a zoo book and said, “Look at this! It’s a frickin’ elephant!” I took a deep breath, then asked… ”What did you call it?” “It’s a frickin’ elephant! It says so on the picture!”
And so it does… " A f r i c a n Elephant " Hooked on phonics! Ain't it wonderful?
Communications Effective pilot/controller communications are key to safe surface operations.
ATC Communications Procedures Your initial transmission should contain these elements: ►Who you are calling ►Your call sign ►Where you are located on the airfield ►Acknowledgement of ATIS information and its current alpha code ►Your intentions, stated briefly
ATC Communications Procedures • State your location whenever making initial contact with any tower or ground controller, regardless of whether you have previously stated your location to a different controller. • Use standard ATC phraseology at all times in order to facilitate clear and concise pilot/controller communications. • Focus on what ATC is instructing. Do not perform any non-essential tasks while communicating with ATC.
ATC Communications Procedures • Read back all clearances/instructions to enter a specific runway, hold short of a runway, or “line up and wait.” Including your call sign. • In your transmission, include the runway designator and taxiway intersection when appropriate. Including your call sign. • Read back all runway assignments. Including your call sign.
ATC Communications Procedures • Read back all takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator.Including your call sign. • If unfamiliar with the taxi routes at an airport, ask for progressive taxi instructions. • Clarify any misunderstanding or confusion concerning ATC instructions or clearances.
“Assumption Mistake” • Hearing what we expect to hear is human tendency. Experience and skill cannot compensate for this natural perceptual limitation. • You can help avoid this mistake with active listening.
“Assumption Mistake” The “assumption mistake” has numerous variations. Some examples of common mistakes include: • If any portion of the transmission is garbled or stepped on, do not assume that the unheard portion is irrelevant. Request that the transmission be repeated by stating “say again”.
“Assumption Mistake” The “assumption mistake” has numerous variations. Some examples of common mistakes include: • If your call sign is not included in the transmission, don’t assume that the transmission is for you. Ask for clarification: “Was that for ...?” • Listen carefully. Don’t assume that a transmission is exactly what you expected.
Radio Technique Listen Think
Summary Words What you say. How you say it. When you say it. ATC Taxi clearance.
ATC: “N 1234 approaching the intersection ahead, bear to the right” N1234: “Roger, I Have Him In Sight!
“I know that you believe you understand what I said…. But, I am not sure you realize that what I said is not what I meant. “