School Bus Driver Training Unit H Crash and Emergency Procedures
Objectives • At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: • Describe most common emergency conditions encountered by bus operators • Recite recommended procedural steps when involved in a crash • Demonstrate what to do and how to do it in case of a mechanical failure or breakdown • Explain factors considered in deciding to evacuate a bus • Describe the sequential order of evacuation • Demonstrate location and use of emergency equipment
Emergency Driving Techniques • When will you need to use emergency driving techniques? • Skids • Tire blowout • Loss of brakes • Sudden loss of visibility • Objects, pedestrians, and obstructions in the path of the bus
Skid Control and Recovery What can cause a loss of traction?
Skid Control and Recovery • Keep both hands on the steering wheel • Stop braking to allow rear wheels to start rolling again (not necessary with antilock brakes) • Gradually lift foot from accelerator • Turn in the direction you want to go • Countersteer as necessary • Beware of correcting the steering too much • Keep your eyes in the direction you want to go ** Remember with antilock brakes, don’t pump the brakes**
Hydroplaning • If traveling in a straight line: • Don’t turn steering wheel • Don’t apply brakes • DO ease off the accelerator • DO engage the clutch • If not traveling in a straight line • Follow the above pointers, and steer in the direction of the skid ** Remember with antilock brakes, don’t pump the brakes**
Scenario It’s the middle of January and you are on your morning secondary route. You’ve had this route since the start of school in September, but now the weather is colder. Temperatures last night were barely above freezing. You cross a bridge and begin to skid on black ice. What is the first thing you do? Should the driver have done anything different given the weather conditions?
Tire Blowout How do you know if your tire fails? • Sound • Vibration • Feel – feels heavy
What do you do? • Keep both hands on the steering wheel • Steer you bus straight • Accelerate for a short time, until steering is controlled. • Let off accelerator once steering is controlled • Do not jam the brakes • Apply brakes slowly after you regained control • Activate signal, and pull off the road • Activate hazard warning lights • Set up portable emergency warning devices
Loss of Brakes • Downshift • Sound the horn • Steer to avoid a crash • Pump the brakes (only if hydraulic brakes) • Use the parking brake • Do NOT turn the engine off • Find an escape route • Level terrain or upgrade • Downgrade
Scenario You running late one morning, and you didn’t complete a pre-trip inspection. Everything seems normal as you leave the bus yard. On your way to school for the afternoon pickup, you hear a buzzer. You look down and you are losing air pressure. What should you do? If the driver ignores the warning and keeps driving, what would happen?
Sudden loss of Visibility • Water splashed on windshield • Remove foot from accelerator • Apply brakes • Look out side windows to keep sight of road until visibility is restored • Windshield wiper failure • Look out side windows • Apply brakes • Activate turn signal and steer off road and stop • Activate the hazard warning lights
Sudden loss of Visibility • Headlight failure • Hit the dimmer switch • Activate the hazard lights • Try to keep sight of the road • Brake slowly • Steer out of traffic and stop • Hood flying up • Look out side windows • Apply brakes • Activate turn signal and steer off road and stop • Activate the hazard warning lights
Sudden loss of Visibility • Patch of fog • Activate strobe light, if equipped. • Activate the low beams and hazard warning lights and slow down. • Use the center or edge lines on the highway to guide you. • If the fog is severe, stay in your lane, use your hazard warning lights and proceed cautiously • Snow whiteout • Remove foot from accelerator and turn wipers on • Look out side windows and apply brakes • If necessary, Activate turn signal and steer off road and stop • Activate the hazard warning lights
Obstructions in Bus Path • Take evasive action • Braking • Steering to avoid crash • Escape route – leaving the highway • Choosing the lesser collision
Stopping Quickly • Sometimes, this will not be fast enough and you will need to steer to avoid a collision • If necessary, use controlled braking • Apply brakes hard without locking • Release and reapply if necessary • ABS systems: Do NOT pump brakes
Steering to Avoid Collision • Keep both hands on the steering wheel • Know how to turn quickly and safely • Don’t apply brakes while turning • Minimize your turning • Be prepared to countersteer • Know where to steer
Steering to Avoid Collision • Leave the road • Only when necessary • Avoid overbraking • Keep one set of wheels on pavement if possible • Stay on the shoulder • Return to the road • Stop first • Use single “steer-countersteer” technique
Emergency Procedures:Remember to K-N-O-W • Keep students calm • Notify authorities, • move Off the road, • use Warning devices.
Emergency Procedures:The 4 C’s • Calm always • Concern for passengers, • Care for vehicle • Complete documentation
Crash Procedures: Bus-related Procedures • Carry out local policies and procedures • Assess the situation • Be alert for fire • Be alert for hazardous materials • Assess the students
Crash Procedures: Crash Scene Procedures • Carry out local policies and procedures • Notify authorities • Who, what, where • Protect the scene • Cooperate with crash investigation • Police, school officials, insurance • Emergency packet on bus • Provide all required information • Keep students at the scene • Do NOT release them unless instructed by school officials or a medical emergency
Crash Procedures: Reporting • Follow company policy • Report ALL crashes to your Supervisor • There are no minor crashes • Reporting information is in emergency packet and in forms provided • Report within 24 hours to chief school administrator • Report within 5 days, School Bus Crash Report (DL-739) • Even if it is not a reportable crash, report it!
Scenario You’re running late on your morning route. You speed, just 5 mph over the posted speed limit, to makeup some time. It’s a clear day and the roads are dry. You feel you know every inch of this road after having driven the same route for the past 5 years. Suddenly, a child darts out in front of your bus. What do you do? What could this driver have done differently?
Mechanical Failure • Stop the bus as far to the right of the road or on shoulder • Keep students on the bus (unless unsafe) • Activate hazard warning lights • Place portable emergency warning devices • Contact dispatch for instructions • See that arrangements are made for all students to be delivered to their destination.
When to Evacuate the Bus? • Existing or imminent smoke or fire condition • Presence of hazardous materials • Unsafe position • Bus submersion or immersion
Evacuation Drills • Conducted during the first week of school • Conducted again in March • Follow local policies in conducting evacuation drills and emergency procedures • Exercise extreme caution when approaching the school where evacuation drills are in progress
Using Emergency Equipment • First aid kit • Portable emergency warning devices • Pry bar • Fire extinguisher • Body fluid clean up kit • List of student names • Seat belt cutter (if equipped) • Spare electrical fuses (if applicable)
Pry Bar • Must be located close to the driver’s compartment
Fire Extinguisher Pre-trip inspection • Charged • Tagged • Signed • Pin in place
Using the Fire Extinguisher • Extinguisher last for about 8 seconds • Basic steps: • Remove from bracket • Pull safety pin • Hold upright • Aim at base of fire • Squeeze handle • Repeat squeeze and release • Sweep side to side
Engine Fire Protect Students First • Turn off engine • DO NOT open the hood • Shoot through louvers and radiator from underside
Seat Belt Cutter • Mount near the driver’s compartment
School Bus Security • Learn state and school district security guidelines • Be aware of suspicious people, activity or behavior around buses, bus stops or bus facilities • Immediately report suspicious items, people, and unusual activities • Be vigilant with respect to strange packages • Know your Supervisor’s contact info • Recognize threats and how to handle • Learn emergency operating plans and procedures • Inspect your bus after it has been unattended • Keep a clean bus
Safety and Security Checklist • Seats • Floor surface • Passenger compartment • Exterior surface • Undercarriage • Engine compartment • Tires • Fenders
Identifying Suspicious Behavior or Activities • Pay particular attention to anyone who: • Appears interested in school facilities or vehicles • Has been sighted with a school or bus stop several times • Has placed a package in a public place and left quickly • Solicits information on school facilities or buses • Takes pictures or video tapes school areas • Looks lost or is wandering and seems out of place • Shows disruptive/distracting behavior • Wear clothing that is NOT weather appropriate • Possesses a weapon or dangerous item • Uses a vehicle in a suspicious way
Reporting Suspicious Items and Unusual Activities • Remain alert and calm. Be as observant as possible, paying attention to the location of the item or device; • IMMEDIATELY report suspicious items and behavior to your dispatcher or local authorities. If you suspect a serious situation, call 911 right away; • Be able to report the location, color, year, make, model and license plate number. Be sure to include the direction of any suspicious vehicles; • Never touch a suspicious item. You need to move as far away as possible and be aware that you could be injured by flying glass or debris; • DO NOT USE your radio or cell phone within 300 feet of the timer or device. YOU CANNOT IDENTIFY SUSPICIOUS BEHAVIOR BASED ON STEREOTYPES OF RACE, COLOR OR ETHNICITY
Emotional Stages • Denial • Belief of immediate rescue • Loss of immediate reality
Hostage Awareness • Things “to do” in a hostage situation: • Bond with your captor • Be human • Take mental notes • Expect to be arrested • Keep a low profile • Think pleasant thoughts • Remain strong for your students • Remember you are a primary witness for investigators
Hostage Awareness • Things “not to do” in a hostage situation: • Do not make any threats • Do not stare or glance at your captor • Do not interfere • Do not negotiate for your own release • Do not negotiate for the release of the students • Do not be arrogant
Hostage Awareness • Things to help in a hostage situation: • Keep the peace • Be patient • Remain calm • Do not be confrontational • Communicate • Be a good witness • Attempt to get along • Cooperate with police and don’t get in their way • Know your passengers – be there for them
Two Key Points • Report suspicious items and unusual activities IMMEDIATELY • Be proactive • Avoid getting caught in situations • Call the police • You CANNOT identify suspicious behavior based on stereotypes of race, color, or ethnicity