School Bus Driver Training Unit G Fundamentals of Driving a School Bus
Objectives • At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: • Describe basic techniques for mechanical operation of a school bus • Identify basic driving maneuvers necessary for navigating scenarios such as: • Railroad grade crossings • Intersections • Entrance and exit ramps • Turnarounds • Mountains • Describe techniques for ascending and descending steep roadway grades
Topics • Preparing to drive • Knowing your route • Field trip/athletic trip concerns • Starting and operating a diesel • Steering and turning • Backing • Turning around • Stopping
Topics • Overhead clearance • Railroad grade crossings • Drawbridges • Entering and exiting flow of traffic • Lanes and positioning on highway • Mountain driving and steep downgrades
Types of School Buses? Type A, involves gross weight of vehicle, many type A are special education buses Type B – the front entrance door is located behind the front entrance wheels.
Types of School Buses? Type D, engine in front, mid, or rear (most cases) passenger door to the front of the right front wheel Type C, most common
What is Different About a Bus? • Size • Stopping distance • Acceleration • Wider turning radius • Clearance differences • Mirror reliance • Driver position (height)
The driving task Three phases: Information Decision Action What’s NOT Different?
Pre-trip inspection (see Unit E) Driver’s seat Seat belts Mirrors Preparing to Drive
Pre-trip Inspection • How often? EVERY time • Develop a routine • Vehicle overview • Engine compartment inspection • Inside bus inspection • Outside bus inspection (walk around) • Brake test
Pre-trip Inspection What is the Most Important Item to Inspect? BRAKES
Container Strap, bolts, Velcro Waste bucket, fire extinguisher, first aid kit…everything! A collision at 50 MPH will cause any objects inside the vehicle to travel at the same speed Secure Items Inside Vehicle
Adjust your seat BEFORE you start driving Comfort Reach controls and pedals Seat Adjustment
Driver: Every trip Lap and shoulder belts State law School bus regulations Seat Belts
Adjust before each trip Adjust AFTER adjusting seat Minimize or eliminate blind spot Clean Refer to Unit E Check and Adjust ALL Mirrors
200 feet At Wheel Well
200 Feet Back 12 Feet Out
Reference Point Driving 1. Position yourself comfortably in your seat 2. Pick an easily observable point on the hood or windshield of your bus 3. With the help of someone outside your bus (if possible), on a conventional style bus, find the point on the ground where the edge of the hood lines up with the point on the ground directly in front of it. For a transit style bus, use some point on the windshield to mark your point on the ground in front of the bus.
Reference Point Driving 4. Once you determine this point, note it in your mind and remember it for future reference. 5. Remember to do this in your own bus, since the point of reference may change from bus to bus depending on the height of the driver’s seat and the model of the bus.
Know Your Route • Are there hazards for driving? • Are there loading/unloading areas that are of concern? • Communicate with your supervisor if there are concerns.
Field Trips/Athletic Trips • Become familiar with the route • Look at a map, take a map with you, ask other drivers that have previously made the trip • Drive the route in a car prior to the trip, if possible • Find out if there are any detours or closed roads • Know where parking is and that it is secure • Have a full tank of fuel • Make sure you cover emergency evacuation procedures • Keep aisles and exits clear • Carry emergency phone numbers • Know what to do and who to call in an emergency • Communicate with the person in charge of the trip
Starting and Operating a Diesel • Refer to Publication 223: Commercial Driver’s Manual • Learn your vehicle • Shift gears smoothly • Practice!
Diesel-powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act: Act 124 Of 2008 • Diesel exhaust from school buses poses a health risk, particularly to children and drivers • Buses that idle outside schools can pollute the air inside the school building as well as outdoors • Act 124 reduced unnecessary idling • Learn about additional, more stringent, local ordinances as well
Diesel-powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act: Act 124 Of 2008 • General rule: buses should be moving whenever the engine is on • Turn engine off as soon as possible after arriving at loading or unloading areas • Restarted only when bus is ready to depart • Limit idling time during early AM warm up to what the manufacturer recommends • Generally no more than 5 minutes
Diesel-powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act: Act 124 Of 2008 • EXCEPTIONS • Idling allowed 15 minutes in a continuous 60-minute period to provide heat or air conditioning to students • May idle for an unlimited amount of time when it is necessary to maintain a safe temperature for students with disabilities.
Pedal Misapplication • Driver hits accelerator instead of brake • Results can be devastating • Become familiar with your vehicle. • Practice operating your bus before picking up and dropping off students. • Familiarity with the location of your accelerator and brake. • Especially if operating a bus that is not your regular bus • Start your bus only after loading is complete
Steering and Turning Your Bus • Grip the wheel securely • Hands on opposite sides of wheel • Push-pull-method • Hand-over-hand method • Do NOT palm the wheel when turning • Do NOT turn with just a finger and thumb
Rounding Curves • Slow down and look ahead for the sharpest point in the curve. • Brake, if necessary, before getting into the curve. • For curves to the right, move as close to the center line as is safe, and use the width of the lane while rounding the curve. • For curves to the left, enter the curve from the right edge of your lane. • When you reach the midpoint of the curve, resume power and accelerate through the remainder of the curve.
Directional Signals • Signal before turning • At least 100’ before turning when traveling at speeds of 35 mph or less • At least 300’ before turning when traveling at speeds over 35 mph • Signal even when no other cars are around • Turn signals do NOT give you the right to turn • Signal when positioning your vehicle • Know and understand hand signals
Left Turn Procedures • Get into the proper lane well in advance of turn • Give left turn signal early • At least 100 feet away at speeds of 35 mph or less • At 300 feet if travelling at speeds over 35 mph • Reduce speed and downshift to the proper gear needed to execute the turn • Check traffic conditions to front, rear, and sides. • Position bus to the left edge of traffic lane • Re-check traffic signals, signs, pedestrians, or vehicle for a clear right-of-way. • Check for vehicles attempting to pass you on the left • Use both outside mirrors
Left Turn Procedures • If you must stop before making the turn, keep the front wheels straight and the brake pedal pressed • Leave a space of a few feet between your bus and the vehicle in front of you • You should be able to see the rear wheels of the vehicle in front of you. If not, you are too close. • Check your left mirror and execute the turn smoothly without strain on the engine • Enter the highway in the left-most lane available
Left Turn Procedures • Steer wheels back into position; do not let the steering wheel spin wheels back. • After completion of turn, check that your turn signal is off. • After completing a left turn onto a multilane highway, pick up speed and move into the right lane as soon as possible
Right Turn Procedures • Get into the proper lane well in advance of turn • Give right turn signal early • At least 100 feet away at speeds of 35 mph or less • At 300 feet if travelling at speeds over 35 mph • Reduce speed and downshift to the proper gear needed to execute the turn • Position the bus to the right edge of the traffic lane about 4’ from the curb. • The bus should not be far enough away from the curb to allow a vehicle to pass on the right between the bus and the curb.
Right Turn Procedures • Check for traffic signals, signs, pedestrians, and vehicles to determine clear right-of-way. • Check for vehicles between right side of bus and curb • Use your mirrors! • Check your right mirror and execute the turn smoothly without strain on the engine. • As soon as the front wheels pass the corner, turn wide to the right, swinging over the center of the side street (if necessary) in order for the rear wheels to clear the curb. • Never shift gears during a turn • Keep an eye on the right mirror while turning • Watch for pedestrians near the curb • Watch out for parked cars
Right Turn Procedures • Enter the right-most lane available, but leave enough room to make your turn. • Steer wheels back into position; do not let steering wheel spin back. • Check that your turn signal is off
Right Hand Turn Pedestrian Behind Mirror
Pedestrian Right Hand Turn
Backing • What are the driver’s responsibilities? • When backing without a helper what procedures would you follow? • What are the helper’s responsibilities? • Where are your blind spots?
Backing Crashes • Backing is a crash cause in over 5% of crashes in which school buses were the prime vehicle. • Backing collisions were 4 times as likely to occur in clear weather as in other weather conditions • Attempting maneuvers in clear weather that they might avoid in less favorable conditions • Overconfidence • Avoid backing whenever possible!
Backing Techniques • Plan! • Keep students on bus • Driver side backing • Look at your path • Back slowly and smoothly • Back straight • Get help, if possible (NOT A STUDENT)
If No Helper is Available • Stop the bus in the correct position to back and activate the four-way hazard warning lights. • If the bus does not have automatic back-up signals, use the horn • Remember, approaching traffic may not know that you are backing • Signal for quiet on the bus • Using mirrors, check that the way is clear to the rear and sides • Put transmission in reverse • Using mirrors, back slowly, smoothly, and straight.