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Causal Consistency Without Dependency Check Messages

Causal Consistency Without Dependency Check Messages

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Causal Consistency Without Dependency Check Messages

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  1. Causal Consistency WithoutDependency Check Messages Willy Zwaenepoel

  2. Introduction

  3. Geo-replicated data stores Data center Data center Data center Data center Data center Geo-replicated data centers Full replication between data centers Data in each data center partitioned

  4. The Consistency Dilemma • Strong Consistency • Causal Consistency • Eventual Consistency • synchronous replication • all replicas share same consistent view • sacrifice availability • asynchronous replication • all replicas eventually converge • sacrifice consistency, but … • … replication respects causality • asynchronous replication • all replicas eventually converge • sacrifice consistency

  5. The cost of causal consistency

  6. Can we close the throughput gap? The answer is: yes, but there is a price

  7. state of the art: WHY THE GAP?

  8. How is causality enforced? • Each update has associated dependencies • What are dependencies? • metadata to establish causality relations between operations • used only for data replication • Internaldependencies • previous updates of the same client session • Externaldependencies • read updates of other client sessions

  9. Internal dependencies Alice W(x = 1) W(y = 2) US Datacenter Europe Datacenter R(y) R(y) y = 2 y = 0 Bob Example of 2 users performing operations at different datacenters at the same partition

  10. External dependencies Alice Bob W(x = 1) R(x) W(y = x + 1) US Datacenter Europe Datacenter R(y) R(y) y = 2 y = 0 Charlie Example of 3 users performing operations at datacenters at the same partition x = 1

  11. How dependencies are tracked & checked Client Read(A) Write(C, A+B) Read(B) … Partition 0 Partition 1 Partition N US Datacenter Europe Datacenter … Partition 0 Partition 1 Partition N DepCheck(B) DepCheck(A) • In current implementations • COPS [SOSP ’11], ChainReaction [Eurosys ‘13], Eiger[NSDI ’13], Orbe [SOCC ’13] • DepCheck(A) – “Do you have A installed yet?”

  12. Encoding of dependencies • COPS [SOSP ’11], ChainR. [Eurosys ‘13], Eiger [NSDI ’13] • “direct” dependencies • Worst case: O( reads before a write ) • Orbe [SOCC ‘13] • Dependency matrix • Worst case: O( partitions )

  13. The main issues • Metadata size is considerable • for both storage and communucation • Remote dependency checks are expensive • multiple partitions are queried for each update

  14. The cost of causal consistency

  15. The cost of dependency check messages

  16. CAUSAL CONSISTENCY WITH0/1 Dependency Check Messages

  17. Getting rid of external dependencies • Partitions serve only fully replicated updates • Replication Confirmation messages broadcast periodically • External dependenciesare removed • replication information implies dependency installation • Internal dependencies are minimized • we only track the previous write • requires at most one remote check • zero if write is local, one if it is remote

  18. The new replication workflow Alice Replication Confirmation (periodically) W(x = 1) US Datacenter Europe Datacenter Asia Datacenter R(x) R(x) Bob Example of 2 users performing operations at different datacenters at the same partition x = 0 x = 1

  19. Reading your own writes • Clients need not wait for the replication confirmation • they can see their own updates immediately • other clients’ updates are visible once they are fully replicated • Multiple logical update spaces Replication update space (not yet visible) Alice’s update space (visible to Alice) Bob’s update space (visible to Bob) … Global update space (fully visible)

  20. The cost of causal consistency

  21. The price paid: update visibility increased • With new implementation ~ max ( network latency from origin to furthest replica + network latency from furthest replica to destination + interval of replication information broadcast ) • With conventional implementation: ~ network latency from origin to destination

  22. CAUSAL CONSISTENCY WITHOUTDependency Check Messages ?!

  23. Is it possible? Only make update visible when one can locally determine no causally preceding update will become visible later at another partition

  24. How to do that? • Encode causality by means of Lamport clock • Each partition maintains its Lamport clock • Each update is timestamped with Lamport clock • Update visible • update.timestamp ≤ min( Lamport clocks ) • Periodically compute minimum

  25. 0-msg causal consistency - throughput

  26. The price paid: update visibility increased • With new implementation ~ max ( network latency from origin to furthest replica + network latency from furthest replica to destination + interval of minimum computation ) • With conventional implementation: ~ network latency from origin to destination

  27. How to deal with “stagnant” Lamport clock? • Lamport clock stagnates if no update in a partition • Combine • Lamport clock • Loosely synchronized physical clock • (easy to do)

  28. More on loosely synchronized physical clocks • Periodically broadcast clock • Reduces update visibility latency to • Network latency from furthest replica to destination + maximum clock skew + clock broadcast interval

  29. Can we close the throughput gap? The answer is: yes, but there is a price The price is increased update visibility

  30. Conclusion: Throughput, messages, latency