CHAPTER 22-2 NATION STATES AND PATTERNS OF CULTURE IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA, 1750–1871
Ethnic nationalism drew on Enlightenment ideas, which recognized a national identity and the right for that nation to exist. • Constitutional nationalists advocated for a uniform language and ethnicity.
Many European nations were linguistically and ethnically diverse. • Herder, a German philosopher, focused on language as the core of nationalism. • Envisioned an ethnolinguistic nationalism that did not exclude low culture or repudiate other ethnolinguistic cultures. • Following Napoleon, Herder’s followers hoped for a unified German nation.
The Growth of the Nation-State, 1815–1871 • Congress of Vienna met in 1815, after defeat of Napoleon, to restore monarchies. • Metternich of Austria was determined to stop republicanism. • Congress had two principles: • legitimacy of monarchical rule • balance of power between European states. • Members agreed to meet as the Concert of Europe at regular intervals. • Difficulty of what to do about German-speaking states. • Confederation of German States created. • Prussia and Austria competed for dominance in the Confederation.
French Bourbon monarchy restored with Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. • He and successor Charles X tried to restore absolutism and aristocracy. • Provoked a republican reaction that replaced Charles with Louis-Philippe. • Paris Revolution in 1848 forced Louis-Philippe into exile. • Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected ruler.
Charles X Louis XVIII
Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte Louis-Philippe
Revolutions of 1848 • Uprisings swept across German Confederation, Ireland, and Italian states. • Constitutional assembly in Germany elected a government. • Restricted by Austrian emperor, and only involved German Federation and Prussia. • Offered hereditary crown to Prussian king, who refused to be “elected.” • Assembly disbanded by Prussian troops and restores regional monarchs.
Ireland • Ethnolinguisticnationalists in Ireland debate the role of Catholicism. • 1854 potato blight killed about a fifth of the population from famine. • Mass emigration to the United States. • Young Irelanders pushed for home rule but were stopped by police.
Italy • Many Italian states were under Austrian control, others were weak states. • Unification of Italy by Cavour, under the King Victor Emanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia. • Aided by Garibaldi, a republican but wanted to unify Italy at all costs.
Giuseppe Garibaldi Victor Emanuel II
Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901)
Prussia . . . Germany Otto von Bismarck Wilhelm I
Second Schleswig War 1864 • Austro-Prussian War 1866 (“Seven Weeks War”) • Franco-Prussian War 1870-71
Richard Wagner (1813 – 1883)
Great Britain • . . . faced two struggles in the nineteenth century. • Scotland, Wales, and Ireland wanted home rule, granted after World War I. • Parliamentary reforms extended franchise to middle and lower classes. • Great Reform Bill of 1832 granted more seats to industrial north. • Corn Laws repealed in 1846 and made grain cheaper. • Second Reform in 1847 opened up voting to working-class voters.
Queen Victoria Born 1819 Reigned 1837-1901
Romanticism and Realism: Philosophical and Artistic Expression to 1850 • Romantics reacted against the materialist thought of the Enlightenment. • Hegel argued that all thought moved to matter in a dialectic. • Led to ego-centered poetry of Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Shelley. • In America, Romantic poetry was transcendentalist: Emerson, Dickinson. • Romantic composers such as Beethoven and Berlioz were encouraged by middle class interest in music. • Romanic painters and writers explored nature and questioned social hierarchy. • Realism shifted focus from the self to the prosaic world of the middle class. • Comte’s Positivism privileged the age of science. • Realist writers moved away from sentiment to middle class aesthetic.
Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818
The Gleaners Jean-François Millet, 1857