Classification of Living Things Grade 6 – Biodiversity – Lesson 1
Classification of Living Things • If biodiversity means the variety of life on the planet, just how “biodiversity” much is there?
Classification of Living Things • There are over 10 million different kinds of life forms, or species, on our planet. • All are unique, but some have more similarities than others. • Scientists classify living things into groups based on how they are the same and how they are different.
Why Classification? • Imagine all of your clothes are in a room on the floor and you have to put them away so they are easy to find later.
Why Classification? • First you could divide them into top and bottoms, two “main groups” of clothes, into different parts of your closet. Tops Bottoms
Why Classification? • Then you could divide the tops into long sleeve and short sleeve and find different drawers for each. Long Sleeves Short Sleeves
Classification of Living Things • The organizing living world is no different, but instead of “ long sleeve tops” and “short bottoms”, an organism is placed into a group based on: • The number of cells that make up the organism. • The type of cell - simple or complex. • If they make or have to eat food. These main groups of living things are called Kingdoms.
Kingdoms • The 6 main kingdomsof living things are: Plants Animals Fungi Protists Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Kingdoms • All are microscopic single and multi celled organisms • Protists – Slimes and Algae • Eubacteria - Most bacteria are in the EUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with. • Archaebacteria- These strange bacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments. Protists, Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
Kingdoms • Mushrooms, mold and mildew are all examples of organisms in the kingdom fungi. Protists– Slimes and Algae • Fungi are organisms that biologists once confused with plants, however, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. Kingdom Fungi
Kingdoms • We all know plants! The kingdom of plants includes flowering plants, woody trees, mosses, and ferns. • There are over 250,000 species of plants. • Some are tiny mosses are no thicker than a hair. • Giant redwood trees can grow to over 350 feet tall The Plant Kingdom
Kingdoms The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1 million known species. There are 2 main types, or sub groups of Animals : • Vertabrates (with a spine) • and Invertabrates(without a spine) The a subgroup of a kingdom is called a phylum. The Animal Kingdom
Kingdoms and Phylum Types of Vertabrates(Kindgom: Amimal, Phylum: Chordata): MAMMALS – warm blooded, have body hair, feed young milk Includes kangaroos, anteaters, bats, monkeys, foxes, bears, otters, tigers, lions, seals, walrus, whales, manatees, elephants, zebras, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, giraffe, & antelopes BIRDS – have wings, feathers, a beak Includes penguins, pelicans, storks, flamingos, ibis, ducks, geese, eagles, hawks, vultures, pheasants, cranes, gulls, puffins, parrots, turacos, owls, hornbills, toucans, & starlings
Kingdoms and Phylum Types of Vertabrates(Kindgom: Amimal, Phylum: Chordata): REPTILES – breath air whole life, lays eggs on land, cold blooded, has scales Includes crocodiles, lizards, snakes, & turtles AMPHIBIANSpart of life underwater (breathing with gills) then on (land breathing with lungs) Includes frogs, salamanders, & newts FISH Live underwater, breath through gills, cold blooded Includes sharks, skates,, pike, salmon, tuna, & puffers
Cool facts about vertebrates: • Some vertebrates are the largest animals, with the largest being the blue whale that can grow to over 100 feet long and weigh as much as 400,000 tonnes. That’s as big as a SPACE SHUTTLE!!! • The smallest vertebrate is a tiny frog called the Paedophryneamauensis. It only grows to about 0.3 inches long.
Kingdoms and Phylum Types of Invertabrates(Kindgom: Amimal, Phylum: Inchordata): ARTHROPODS Includes insects, spiders, scorpions, shrimp, lobster, crabs, millipedes, & centipedes CNIDARIANS Includesjellyfish, sea anemones, & corals
Kingdoms and Phylum Types of Invertabrates(Kindgom: Amimal, Phylum: Inchordata): MOLLUSCANS Includes clams, snails, octopuses, & squid ECHINODERMS Includes sea stars, sea cucumbers, & sea urchins
Cool facts about invertebrates: • Invertebrates were the earliest animals, appearing on earth between three and five billion years ago. • An estimated 97% of all species are alive today are invertebrates. • Of all invertebrates, the insects are by far the most numerous. There are so many species of insects that scientists have yet to discover them all, let alone name or count them. Estimates of the total number of insect fall in the range of 10 to 30 million!!!
Classification of Living Things - Summary • Life forms are classified according to their characteristics. • Scientists needs these systems to help study the variety of life on the planet. • The Kingdoms are major groupings of life forms. • The Groups inside of a Kingdom are called Phylum. • The Groups inside a Phylum are called classes.